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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 alin 1.28 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.27 2005/04/26 03:11:23 vapier Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.17 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 swift 1.1
29     <abstract>
30 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
31 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
32     </abstract>
33    
34 swift 1.6 <license/>
35    
36 alin 1.28 <version>1.5</version>
37     <date>2005-04-26</date>
38 swift 1.1
39     <chapter>
40     <title>Introduction</title>
41     <section>
42     <body>
43    
44     <p>
45     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
46     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
47     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
48     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
49     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
50     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
51     sources we make available to you.
52     </p>
53    
54     </body>
55     </section>
56     </chapter>
57    
58     <chapter>
59 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
60 swift 1.1 <section>
61 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
66     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
67     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
68     </p>
69    
70 cam 1.11 <p>
71     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
72     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
73     </p>
74    
75 bennyc 1.9 </body>
76     </section>
77     <section>
78 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
79 swift 1.1 <body>
80    
81     <p>
82 swift 1.26 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
83     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
84     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
85     on <e>most</e> architectures.
86 swift 1.1 </p>
87    
88     <p>
89 swift 1.26 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
90 swift 1.24 patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
91     compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
92     the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
93     rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
94     new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
95 swift 1.17 </p>
96    
97     <p>
98 swift 1.24 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
99     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
100 swift 1.26 for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
101     patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
102     counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
103     improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
104     bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
105     able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
106 swift 1.24 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration
107     document</uri> useful.
108     </p>
109    
110     <p>
111     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
112     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
113     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
114     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
115     official Linux kernel.
116 swift 1.1 </p>
117    
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     <section>
121 swift 1.24 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
122 swift 1.1 <body>
123    
124     <p>
125     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
126 swift 1.24 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
127     sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
128     not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
129     a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
130     </p>
131    
132     <p>
133 swift 1.26 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
134     under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
135 swift 1.24 </p>
136    
137     <p>
138     Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
139     creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
140     Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
141     Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
142     only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
143     development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
144 swift 1.1 </p>
145    
146     <p>
147 swift 1.24 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
148     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
149     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
150     mature.
151 swift 1.5 </p>
152    
153     </body>
154     </section>
155 swift 1.17
156 swift 1.5 <section>
157 swift 1.17 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title>
158 swift 1.1 <body>
159    
160     <p>
161 swift 1.17 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
162     running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
163     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
164     GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
165 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
166     </p>
167    
168     <p>
169 swift 1.17 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c>
170     but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
171     </p>
172    
173     <p>
174 swift 1.1 The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
175     </p>
176    
177     <table>
178     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
179     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
180     </table>
181    
182     </body>
183     </section>
184     <section>
185     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
186     <body>
187    
188     <p>
189 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
190 swift 1.18 <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
191     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
192 swift 1.19 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of
193 swift 1.17 the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets
194 swift 1.19 mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that
195 swift 1.17 the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
196 swift 1.1 </p>
197    
198     </body>
199     </section>
200     </chapter>
201    
202     <chapter>
203 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
204 swift 1.1 <section>
205     <body>
206    
207     <p>
208     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
209     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
210 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
211     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
212 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
213 swift 1.1 </p>
214    
215     </body>
216     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>ck-sources</title>
219     <body>
220    
221     <p>
222 swift 1.25 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
223     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
224     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
225     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
226     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
227     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
228     <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
229 swift 1.1 </p>
230    
231     </body>
232     </section>
233     <section>
234 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
235 swift 1.1 <body>
236    
237     <p>
238 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
239 neysx 1.10 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
240 swift 1.5 security-related patches, support for PaX.
241 swift 1.1 </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </section>
245     <section>
246     <title>mm-sources</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250 neysx 1.10 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
251     Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
252     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
253     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
254     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
255     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
256 swift 1.1 </p>
257    
258     <p>
259 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
260 swift 1.1 <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
261 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
262     doesn't always work as expected.
263 swift 1.1 </p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </section>
267     <section>
268     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
269     <body>
270    
271     <p>
272     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
273     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
274     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
275     </p>
276    
277     </body>
278     </section>
279     <section>
280     <title>selinux-sources</title>
281     <body>
282    
283     <p>
284     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
285     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
286     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
287     </p>
288    
289     </body>
290     </section>
291     <section>
292     <title>usermode-sources</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
297     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
298     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
299     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
300     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
301     </p>
302    
303     <p>
304     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
305     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
306     </p>
307    
308     </body>
309     </section>
310     <section>
311     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
312     <body>
313    
314     <p>
315     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
316     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
317     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
318     information.
319     </p>
320    
321     </body>
322     </section>
323     <section>
324     <title>wolk-sources</title>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
329     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
330     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
331     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
332     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
333     combination of the patches.
334     </p>
335    
336     <p>
337     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
338     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
339     </p>
340    
341     </body>
342     </section>
343     </chapter>
344 swift 1.17
345     <chapter>
346     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
347     <section>
348 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
353     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
354     was removed as it went out of date.
355     </p>
356    
357     </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title>alpha-sources</title>
361     <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
365     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
366     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
367     with no need for extra patches.
368     </p>
369    
370     </body>
371     </section>
372     <section>
373 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
374     <body>
375    
376     <p>
377     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
378     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
379     </p>
380    
381     </body>
382     </section>
383     <section>
384 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
385 swift 1.24 <body>
386    
387     <p>
388 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
389 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
390     </p>
391    
392     </body>
393     </section>
394     <section>
395     <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
400     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
401     </p>
402    
403     </body>
404     </section>
405     <section>
406 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
407     <body>
408    
409     <p>
410     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
411     has been obseleted by security development in the 2.6 tree.
412 swift 1.18 </p>
413    
414     </body>
415     </section>
416 swift 1.17 </chapter>
417    
418 swift 1.1 </guide>

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