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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 jkt 1.37 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.36 2006/01/13 19:16:23 jkt Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.17 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 swift 1.1
32     <abstract>
33 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
35     </abstract>
36    
37 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39 swift 1.6 <license/>
40    
41 jkt 1.36 <version>1.12</version>
42 fox2mike 1.35 <date>2006-01-13</date>
43 swift 1.1
44     <chapter>
45     <title>Introduction</title>
46     <section>
47     <body>
48    
49     <p>
50     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56     sources we make available to you.
57     </p>
58    
59     </body>
60     </section>
61     </chapter>
62    
63     <chapter>
64 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
65 swift 1.1 <section>
66 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
67     <body>
68    
69     <p>
70     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
71     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
72     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
73     </p>
74    
75 cam 1.11 <p>
76     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
77     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
78     </p>
79    
80 bennyc 1.9 </body>
81     </section>
82     <section>
83 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84 swift 1.1 <body>
85    
86     <p>
87 swift 1.26 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
88     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90     on <e>most</e> architectures.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     <p>
94 swift 1.26 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
95 swift 1.24 patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
96     compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
97     the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98     rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99     new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100 swift 1.17 </p>
101    
102     <p>
103 swift 1.24 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105 swift 1.26 for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106     patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107     counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108     improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109     bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110     able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111 alin 1.34 <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112 swift 1.24 </p>
113    
114     <p>
115     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
117     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
118     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
119     official Linux kernel.
120 swift 1.1 </p>
121    
122     </body>
123     </section>
124     <section>
125 swift 1.24 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
126 swift 1.1 <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130 swift 1.24 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131     sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132     not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133     a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137 swift 1.26 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138     under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139 swift 1.24 </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143     creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144     Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145     Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146     only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147     development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148 swift 1.1 </p>
149    
150     <p>
151 swift 1.24 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154     mature.
155 swift 1.5 </p>
156    
157     </body>
158     </section>
159 swift 1.17
160 swift 1.5 <section>
161 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162 swift 1.1 <body>
163    
164     <p>
165 fox2mike 1.32 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
166 fox2mike 1.31 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
167     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
168     <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
169     <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170     stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
171     and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
172     more information.
173 swift 1.17 </p>
174    
175     <p>
176 neysx 1.29 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177 fox2mike 1.31 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178     flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179 fox2mike 1.32 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180 swift 1.1 </p>
181    
182 neysx 1.29 <impo>
183     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
185     </impo>
186 swift 1.1
187     </body>
188     </section>
189     <section>
190     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191     <body>
192    
193     <p>
194 fox2mike 1.35 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
195     <c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196     patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197     patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198     above and below.
199 swift 1.1 </p>
200    
201     </body>
202     </section>
203     </chapter>
204    
205     <chapter>
206 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207 swift 1.1 <section>
208     <body>
209    
210     <p>
211     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
216 swift 1.1 </p>
217    
218     </body>
219     </section>
220     <section>
221     <title>ck-sources</title>
222     <body>
223    
224     <p>
225 swift 1.25 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
226     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
227     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
228     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
229     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
230     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
231     <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232 swift 1.1 </p>
233    
234     </body>
235     </section>
236     <section>
237 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
238     <body>
239    
240     <p>
241     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
245 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
246     </p>
247    
248     </body>
249     </section>
250     <section>
251 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
252     <body>
253    
254     <p>
255 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
256 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
257     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
258     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
259     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
260     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
261 swift 1.1 </p>
262    
263     <p>
264 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
265 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
266 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
267     doesn't always work as expected.
268 swift 1.1 </p>
269    
270     </body>
271     </section>
272     <section>
273     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
274     <body>
275    
276     <p>
277     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
278     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
279     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </section>
284     <section>
285 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289     OpenVZ is a server virtualization soultion built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
290     isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
291     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
292     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
293     <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>
294     </p>
295    
296     </body>
297     </section>
298     <section>
299     <title>suspend2-sources</title>
300 swift 1.1 <body>
301    
302     <p>
303 fox2mike 1.35 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
304     which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305     link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
306     and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     <p>
310 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312 swift 1.1 </p>
313    
314     </body>
315     </section>
316     <section>
317 fox2mike 1.35 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
318 swift 1.1 <body>
319    
320     <p>
321 fox2mike 1.35 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323 swift 1.1 </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327 swift 1.33 <section>
328 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
329 swift 1.33 <body>
330    
331     <p>
332 fox2mike 1.35 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337 swift 1.33 </p>
338    
339     <p>
340 fox2mike 1.35 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
342 swift 1.33 </p>
343    
344     </body>
345     </section>
346 swift 1.1 </chapter>
347 swift 1.17
348     <chapter>
349     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
350     <section>
351 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
352     <body>
353    
354     <p>
355     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
356     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
357     was removed as it went out of date.
358     </p>
359    
360     </body>
361     </section>
362     <section>
363     <title>alpha-sources</title>
364     <body>
365    
366     <p>
367     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
368     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
369     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
370     with no need for extra patches.
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </section>
375     <section>
376 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
377     <body>
378    
379     <p>
380     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
381     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
382     </p>
383    
384     </body>
385     </section>
386     <section>
387 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
388 swift 1.24 <body>
389    
390     <p>
391 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
392 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
393     </p>
394    
395     </body>
396     </section>
397     <section>
398 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
403     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
404     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
405     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
406     </p>
407    
408     </body>
409     </section>
410     <section>
411 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
416     package.
417     </p>
418    
419     </body>
420     </section>
421     <section>
422 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
427     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
428     </p>
429    
430     </body>
431     </section>
432     <section>
433 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
434     <body>
435    
436     <p>
437     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
438 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
439 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
440 swift 1.18 </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </section>
444 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
445     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449     <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
452     </p>
453    
454     </body>
455     </section>
456 swift 1.17 </chapter>
457 swift 1.1 </guide>

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