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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.46 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.45 2006/11/30 20:08:34 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 swift 1.1
32     <abstract>
33 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
35     </abstract>
36    
37 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39 swift 1.6 <license/>
40    
41 nightmorph 1.46 <version>1.16</version>
42     <date>2006-12-03</date>
43 swift 1.1
44     <chapter>
45     <title>Introduction</title>
46     <section>
47     <body>
48    
49     <p>
50     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56     sources we make available to you.
57     </p>
58    
59 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
60 nightmorph 1.46 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
61     creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
62     Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
63     Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
64     only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
65     development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
66     </p>
67    
68     <p>
69     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
70     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
71     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
72     mature.
73     </p>
74    
75     <p>
76 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
77     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
78     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
79     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
80     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
81     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
82     </p>
83    
84 swift 1.1 </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87    
88     <chapter>
89 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
90 swift 1.1 <section>
91 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
92     <body>
93    
94     <p>
95     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
96     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
97     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
98     </p>
99    
100 cam 1.11 <p>
101     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
102     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
103     </p>
104    
105 bennyc 1.9 </body>
106     </section>
107     <section>
108 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
109 swift 1.1 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 swift 1.26 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
113     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
114     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
115     on <e>most</e> architectures.
116 swift 1.1 </p>
117    
118     <p>
119 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
120     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
121     uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is the current official stable kernel
122     tree, and development is progressing rapidly. For highest performance, best
123     hardware support, and its large new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older
124     2.4 counterpart.
125 swift 1.17 </p>
126    
127     <p>
128 nightmorph 1.45 The 2.4 <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel patches are similar to those included in
129     its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
130     improve performance.
131 swift 1.24 </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
135     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
136     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
137     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
138     official Linux kernel.
139 swift 1.1 </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
145 swift 1.1 <body>
146    
147     <p>
148 fox2mike 1.32 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
149 fox2mike 1.31 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
150     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
151     <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
152     <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
153     stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
154     and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
155     more information.
156 swift 1.17 </p>
157    
158     <p>
159 neysx 1.29 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
160 fox2mike 1.31 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
161     flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
162 fox2mike 1.32 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
163 swift 1.1 </p>
164    
165 neysx 1.29 <impo>
166     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
167     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
168     </impo>
169 swift 1.1
170     </body>
171     </section>
172     <section>
173     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
174     <body>
175    
176     <p>
177 vapier 1.42 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c> <c>sparc-sources</c>
178 fox2mike 1.40 and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
179     specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
180     features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
181 swift 1.1 </p>
182    
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     </chapter>
186    
187     <chapter>
188 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
189 swift 1.1 <section>
190     <body>
191    
192     <p>
193     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
194     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
195 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
196     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
197 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
198 swift 1.1 </p>
199    
200     </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>ck-sources</title>
204     <body>
205    
206     <p>
207 swift 1.25 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
208     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
209     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
210     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
211     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
212     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
213     <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
214 swift 1.1 </p>
215    
216     </body>
217     </section>
218     <section>
219 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
220     <body>
221    
222     <p>
223     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
224     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
225     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
226 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
227 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
228     </p>
229    
230     </body>
231     </section>
232     <section>
233 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
234     <body>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
238 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
239     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
240     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
241     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
242     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
243 swift 1.1 </p>
244    
245     <p>
246 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
247 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
248 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
249     doesn't always work as expected.
250 swift 1.1 </p>
251    
252     </body>
253     </section>
254     <section>
255     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
256     <body>
257    
258     <p>
259     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
260 vanquirius 1.38 (a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
261     information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
262 swift 1.1 </p>
263    
264     </body>
265     </section>
266     <section>
267 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
268     <body>
269    
270     <p>
271 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
272 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
273     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
274     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
275 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
276 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
277    
278     </body>
279     </section>
280     <section>
281     <title>suspend2-sources</title>
282 swift 1.1 <body>
283    
284     <p>
285 fox2mike 1.35 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
286     which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
287     link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
288     and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
289 swift 1.1 </p>
290    
291     <p>
292 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
293     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
294 swift 1.1 </p>
295    
296     </body>
297     </section>
298     <section>
299 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
300 swift 1.33 <body>
301    
302     <p>
303 fox2mike 1.35 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
304     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
305     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
306     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
307     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
308 swift 1.33 </p>
309    
310     <p>
311 fox2mike 1.35 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
312     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
313 swift 1.33 </p>
314    
315     </body>
316     </section>
317 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
318     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
319     <body>
320    
321     <p>
322     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
323     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
324     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
325     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
326     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
327     instead.
328     </p>
329    
330     <p>
331     Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
332     under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
333     </p>
334    
335     </body>
336     </section>
337 swift 1.1 </chapter>
338 swift 1.17
339     <chapter>
340     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
341     <section>
342 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
343     <body>
344    
345     <p>
346     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
347     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
348     was removed as it went out of date.
349     </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353     <section>
354     <title>alpha-sources</title>
355     <body>
356    
357     <p>
358     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
359     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
360     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
361     with no need for extra patches.
362     </p>
363    
364     </body>
365     </section>
366     <section>
367 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
368     <body>
369    
370     <p>
371     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
372     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
373     </p>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377     <section>
378 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
379 swift 1.24 <body>
380    
381     <p>
382 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
383 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
384     </p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </section>
388     <section>
389 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
390     <body>
391    
392     <p>
393     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
394     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
395     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
396     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
397     </p>
398    
399     </body>
400     </section>
401     <section>
402 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
403     <body>
404    
405     <p>
406     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
407     package.
408     </p>
409    
410     </body>
411     </section>
412     <section>
413 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
418     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
419     </p>
420    
421     </body>
422     </section>
423     <section>
424 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
425     <body>
426    
427     <p>
428     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
429 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
430 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
431 swift 1.18 </p>
432    
433     </body>
434     </section>
435 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
436 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
437     <body>
438    
439     <p>
440     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
441     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
442 rane 1.41 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no longer
443 fox2mike 1.40 in the tree.
444     </p>
445    
446     </body>
447     </section>
448     <section>
449 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
454     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
455     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
456     </p>
457    
458     </body>
459     </section>
460 swift 1.17 </chapter>
461 swift 1.1 </guide>

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