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YAU (yet another update) to the kernel guide, now that we know who's the new 2.4 maintainer. thanks to Jan Kundrat for the link

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.47 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.46 2006/12/04 01:19:19 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 nightmorph 1.47 <author title="editor">
32     <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.1
35     <abstract>
36 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
38     </abstract>
39    
40 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 swift 1.6 <license/>
43    
44 nightmorph 1.47 <version>1.17</version>
45     <date>2006-12-04</date>
46 swift 1.1
47     <chapter>
48     <title>Introduction</title>
49     <section>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59     sources we make available to you.
60     </p>
61    
62 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
63 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75     mature.
76     </p>
77    
78     <p>
79 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85     </p>
86    
87 swift 1.1 </body>
88     </section>
89     </chapter>
90    
91     <chapter>
92 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 swift 1.1 <section>
94 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101     </p>
102    
103 cam 1.11 <p>
104     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106     </p>
107    
108 bennyc 1.9 </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 swift 1.26 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
116     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
117     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
118     on <e>most</e> architectures.
119 swift 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
123     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
124     uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is the current official stable kernel
125     tree, and development is progressing rapidly. For highest performance, best
126     hardware support, and its large new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older
127     2.4 counterpart.
128 swift 1.17 </p>
129    
130     <p>
131 nightmorph 1.45 The 2.4 <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel patches are similar to those included in
132     its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
133     improve performance.
134 swift 1.24 </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
138     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
139     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
140     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
141     official Linux kernel.
142 swift 1.1 </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
148 swift 1.1 <body>
149    
150     <p>
151 fox2mike 1.32 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
152 fox2mike 1.31 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
153     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
154     <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
155     <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
156     stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
157     and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
158     more information.
159 swift 1.17 </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 neysx 1.29 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
163 fox2mike 1.31 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
164     flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
165 fox2mike 1.32 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
166 swift 1.1 </p>
167    
168 neysx 1.29 <impo>
169     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
170     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
171     </impo>
172 swift 1.1
173     </body>
174     </section>
175     <section>
176     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180 vapier 1.42 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c> <c>sparc-sources</c>
181 fox2mike 1.40 and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
182     specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
183     features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
184 swift 1.1 </p>
185    
186     </body>
187     </section>
188     </chapter>
189    
190     <chapter>
191 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
192 swift 1.1 <section>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
197     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
198 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
199     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
200 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
201 swift 1.1 </p>
202    
203     </body>
204     </section>
205     <section>
206     <title>ck-sources</title>
207     <body>
208    
209     <p>
210 swift 1.25 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
211     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
212     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
213     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
214     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
215     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
216     <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
217 swift 1.1 </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </section>
221     <section>
222 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
227     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
228     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
229 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
230 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
231     </p>
232    
233     </body>
234     </section>
235     <section>
236 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
237     <body>
238    
239     <p>
240 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
241 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
242     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
243     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
244     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
245     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
246 swift 1.1 </p>
247    
248     <p>
249 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
250 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
251 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
252     doesn't always work as expected.
253 swift 1.1 </p>
254    
255     </body>
256     </section>
257     <section>
258     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
259     <body>
260    
261     <p>
262     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
263 vanquirius 1.38 (a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
264     information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
265 swift 1.1 </p>
266    
267     </body>
268     </section>
269     <section>
270 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
271     <body>
272    
273     <p>
274 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
275 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
276     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
277     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
278 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
279 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
280    
281     </body>
282     </section>
283     <section>
284     <title>suspend2-sources</title>
285 swift 1.1 <body>
286    
287     <p>
288 fox2mike 1.35 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
289     which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
290     link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
291     and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294     <p>
295 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
296     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
297 swift 1.1 </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </section>
301     <section>
302 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
303 swift 1.33 <body>
304    
305     <p>
306 fox2mike 1.35 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
307     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
308     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
309     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
310     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
311 swift 1.33 </p>
312    
313     <p>
314 fox2mike 1.35 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
315     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
316 swift 1.33 </p>
317    
318     </body>
319     </section>
320 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
321     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
322     <body>
323    
324     <p>
325     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
326     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
327     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
328     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
329     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
330     instead.
331     </p>
332    
333     <p>
334     Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
335     under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340 swift 1.1 </chapter>
341 swift 1.17
342     <chapter>
343     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
344     <section>
345 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
350     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
351     was removed as it went out of date.
352     </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357     <title>alpha-sources</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
362     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
363     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
364     with no need for extra patches.
365     </p>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
375     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
376     </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380     <section>
381 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
382 swift 1.24 <body>
383    
384     <p>
385 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
386 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
387     </p>
388    
389     </body>
390     </section>
391     <section>
392 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
393     <body>
394    
395     <p>
396     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
397     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
398     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
399     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
400     </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
410     package.
411     </p>
412    
413     </body>
414     </section>
415     <section>
416 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
417     <body>
418    
419     <p>
420     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
421     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
422     </p>
423    
424     </body>
425     </section>
426     <section>
427 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
428     <body>
429    
430     <p>
431     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
432 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
433 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
434 swift 1.18 </p>
435    
436     </body>
437     </section>
438 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
439 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
440     <body>
441    
442     <p>
443     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
444     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
445 rane 1.41 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no longer
446 fox2mike 1.40 in the tree.
447     </p>
448    
449     </body>
450     </section>
451     <section>
452 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
453     <body>
454    
455     <p>
456     <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
457     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
458     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
459     </p>
460    
461     </body>
462     </section>
463 swift 1.17 </chapter>
464 swift 1.1 </guide>

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