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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.49 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.48 2006/12/18 11:53:12 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
32 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.1
35     <abstract>
36 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
38     </abstract>
39    
40 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 swift 1.6 <license/>
43    
44 nightmorph 1.49 <version>1.18</version>
45     <date>2007-02-17</date>
46 swift 1.1
47     <chapter>
48     <title>Introduction</title>
49     <section>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59     sources we make available to you.
60     </p>
61    
62 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
63 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75     mature.
76     </p>
77    
78     <p>
79 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85     </p>
86    
87 swift 1.1 </body>
88     </section>
89     </chapter>
90    
91     <chapter>
92 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 swift 1.1 <section>
94 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101     </p>
102    
103 cam 1.11 <p>
104     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106     </p>
107    
108 bennyc 1.9 </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 swift 1.26 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
116     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
117     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
118     on <e>most</e> architectures.
119 swift 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
123     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
124     uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is the current official stable kernel
125     tree, and development is progressing rapidly. For highest performance, best
126     hardware support, and its large new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older
127     2.4 counterpart.
128 swift 1.17 </p>
129    
130     <p>
131 nightmorph 1.45 The 2.4 <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel patches are similar to those included in
132     its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
133     improve performance.
134 swift 1.24 </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
138     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
139     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
140     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
141     official Linux kernel.
142 swift 1.1 </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
148 swift 1.1 <body>
149    
150     <p>
151 fox2mike 1.32 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
152 fox2mike 1.31 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
153     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
154     <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
155     <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
156     stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
157     and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
158     more information.
159 swift 1.17 </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 neysx 1.29 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
163 fox2mike 1.31 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
164     flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
165 fox2mike 1.32 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
166 swift 1.1 </p>
167    
168 neysx 1.29 <impo>
169     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
170     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
171     </impo>
172 swift 1.1
173     </body>
174     </section>
175     <section>
176     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180 nightmorph 1.48 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
181     <c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
182     patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
183     patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
184     above and below.
185 swift 1.1 </p>
186    
187     </body>
188     </section>
189     </chapter>
190    
191     <chapter>
192 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
193 swift 1.1 <section>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
198     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
199 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
200     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
201 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
202 swift 1.1 </p>
203    
204     </body>
205     </section>
206     <section>
207     <title>ck-sources</title>
208     <body>
209    
210     <p>
211 swift 1.25 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
212     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
213     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
214     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
215     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
216     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
217     <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
218 swift 1.1 </p>
219    
220     </body>
221     </section>
222     <section>
223 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
224     <body>
225    
226     <p>
227     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
228     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
229     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
230 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
231 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
232     </p>
233    
234     </body>
235     </section>
236     <section>
237 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
238     <body>
239    
240     <p>
241 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
242 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
243     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
244     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
245     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
246     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
247 swift 1.1 </p>
248    
249     <p>
250 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
251 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
252 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
253     doesn't always work as expected.
254 swift 1.1 </p>
255    
256     </body>
257     </section>
258     <section>
259 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
260     <body>
261    
262     <p>
263 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
264 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
265     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
266     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
267 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
268 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
269    
270     </body>
271     </section>
272     <section>
273     <title>suspend2-sources</title>
274 swift 1.1 <body>
275    
276     <p>
277 fox2mike 1.35 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
278     which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
279     link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
280     and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
281 swift 1.1 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
285     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
286 swift 1.1 </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </section>
290     <section>
291 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
292 swift 1.33 <body>
293    
294     <p>
295 fox2mike 1.35 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
296     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
297     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
298     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
299     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
300 swift 1.33 </p>
301    
302     <p>
303 fox2mike 1.35 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
304     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
305 swift 1.33 </p>
306    
307     </body>
308     </section>
309 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
310     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
311     <body>
312    
313     <p>
314     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
315     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
316     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
317     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
318     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
319     instead.
320     </p>
321    
322     <p>
323     Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
324     under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
325     </p>
326    
327     </body>
328     </section>
329 swift 1.1 </chapter>
330 swift 1.17
331     <chapter>
332     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
333     <section>
334 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
335     <body>
336    
337     <p>
338     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
339     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
340     was removed as it went out of date.
341     </p>
342    
343     </body>
344     </section>
345     <section>
346     <title>alpha-sources</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
351     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
352     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
353     with no need for extra patches.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </section>
358     <section>
359 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
360     <body>
361    
362     <p>
363     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
364     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
365     </p>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
371 swift 1.24 <body>
372    
373     <p>
374 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
375 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
376     </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380     <section>
381 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
386     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
387     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
388     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
389     </p>
390    
391     </body>
392     </section>
393     <section>
394 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
399     package.
400     </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
410     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
411     </p>
412    
413     </body>
414     </section>
415     <section>
416 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
417     <body>
418    
419     <p>
420     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
421 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
422 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
423 swift 1.18 </p>
424    
425     </body>
426     </section>
427 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
428 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
433     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
434 rane 1.41 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no longer
435 fox2mike 1.40 in the tree.
436     </p>
437    
438     </body>
439     </section>
440     <section>
441 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
442     <body>
443    
444     <p>
445     <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
446     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
447     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
448     </p>
449    
450     </body>
451     </section>
452 swift 1.17 </chapter>
453 swift 1.1 </guide>

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