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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.53 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.52 2008/02/03 18:30:34 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 swift 1.53 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
32 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.1
35     <abstract>
36 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
38     </abstract>
39    
40 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 swift 1.6 <license/>
43    
44 swift 1.51 <version>1.20</version>
45 neysx 1.50 <date>2008-02-03</date>
46 swift 1.1
47     <chapter>
48     <title>Introduction</title>
49     <section>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53 swift 1.53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58 swift 1.1 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59     sources we make available to you.
60     </p>
61    
62 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
63 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75     mature.
76     </p>
77    
78     <p>
79 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85     </p>
86    
87 swift 1.1 </body>
88     </section>
89     </chapter>
90    
91     <chapter>
92 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 swift 1.1 <section>
94 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101     </p>
102    
103 cam 1.11 <p>
104     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106     </p>
107    
108 bennyc 1.9 </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 swift 1.53 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
116     2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
117     specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
118 swift 1.26 on <e>most</e> architectures.
119 swift 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
123     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
124     uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is the current official stable kernel
125     tree, and development is progressing rapidly. For highest performance, best
126     hardware support, and its large new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older
127     2.4 counterpart.
128 swift 1.17 </p>
129    
130     <p>
131 nightmorph 1.45 The 2.4 <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel patches are similar to those included in
132     its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
133     improve performance.
134 swift 1.24 </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
138     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
139     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
140     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
141     official Linux kernel.
142 swift 1.1 </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
148 swift 1.1 <body>
149    
150     <p>
151 fox2mike 1.32 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
152 fox2mike 1.31 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
153 swift 1.53 various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
154     <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
155 fox2mike 1.31 <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
156     stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
157 swift 1.53 and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
158 fox2mike 1.31 more information.
159 swift 1.17 </p>
160    
161     <p>
162 neysx 1.29 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
163 fox2mike 1.31 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
164     flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
165 fox2mike 1.32 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
166 swift 1.1 </p>
167    
168 neysx 1.29 <impo>
169     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
170     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
171     </impo>
172 swift 1.1
173     </body>
174     </section>
175     <section>
176     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180 nightmorph 1.48 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
181     <c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
182     patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
183     patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
184     above and below.
185 swift 1.1 </p>
186    
187     </body>
188     </section>
189     </chapter>
190    
191     <chapter>
192 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
193 swift 1.1 <section>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197 swift 1.53 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
198     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
199 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
200     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
201 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
202 swift 1.1 </p>
203    
204     </body>
205     </section>
206     <section>
207 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
208     <body>
209    
210     <p>
211     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
212     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
213     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
214 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
215 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
216     </p>
217    
218     </body>
219     </section>
220     <section>
221 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
222     <body>
223    
224     <p>
225 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
226 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
227     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
228     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
229     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
230     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
231 swift 1.1 </p>
232    
233     <p>
234 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
235 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
236 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
237     doesn't always work as expected.
238 swift 1.1 </p>
239    
240     </body>
241     </section>
242     <section>
243 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
248 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
249     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
250     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
251 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
252 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
253    
254     </body>
255     </section>
256     <section>
257 swift 1.51 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
258 swift 1.1 <body>
259    
260     <p>
261 swift 1.52 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
262     both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
263 swift 1.53 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
264     implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
265 swift 1.52 <e>suspend2</e>.
266 swift 1.1 </p>
267    
268     <p>
269 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
270     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
271 swift 1.1 </p>
272    
273     </body>
274     </section>
275     <section>
276 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
277 swift 1.33 <body>
278    
279     <p>
280 swift 1.53 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
281 fox2mike 1.35 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
282     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
283 swift 1.53 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
284     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
285 swift 1.33 </p>
286    
287     <p>
288 swift 1.53 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
289 fox2mike 1.35 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
290 swift 1.33 </p>
291    
292     </body>
293     </section>
294 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
295     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
296     <body>
297    
298     <p>
299     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
300     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
301     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
302     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
303     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
304     instead.
305     </p>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.53 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
309 nightmorph 1.45 under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
310     </p>
311    
312     </body>
313     </section>
314 swift 1.1 </chapter>
315 swift 1.17
316     <chapter>
317     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
318     <section>
319 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
320     <body>
321    
322     <p>
323     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
324     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
325     was removed as it went out of date.
326     </p>
327    
328     </body>
329     </section>
330     <section>
331     <title>alpha-sources</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
336     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
337     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
338     with no need for extra patches.
339     </p>
340    
341     </body>
342     </section>
343     <section>
344 neysx 1.50 <title>ck-sources</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.53 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
349     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
350     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
351     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
352     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
353     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
354 neysx 1.50 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
355     </p>
356    
357     </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
361     <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
365     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
366     </p>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370     <section>
371 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
372 swift 1.24 <body>
373    
374     <p>
375 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
376 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
377     </p>
378    
379     </body>
380     </section>
381     <section>
382 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
387     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
388     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
389     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
390     </p>
391    
392     </body>
393     </section>
394     <section>
395 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
400     package.
401     </p>
402    
403     </body>
404     </section>
405     <section>
406 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
407     <body>
408    
409     <p>
410     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
411     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
412     </p>
413    
414     </body>
415     </section>
416     <section>
417 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
418     <body>
419    
420     <p>
421     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
422 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
423 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
424 swift 1.18 </p>
425    
426     </body>
427     </section>
428 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
429 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
430     <body>
431    
432     <p>
433     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
434     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
435 swift 1.53 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
436     longer in the tree.
437 fox2mike 1.40 </p>
438    
439     </body>
440     </section>
441     <section>
442 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
443     <body>
444    
445     <p>
446 swift 1.53 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
447 fox2mike 1.35 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
448     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
449     </p>
450    
451     </body>
452     </section>
453 swift 1.17 </chapter>
454 swift 1.1 </guide>

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