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Revision 1.54 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jan 25 21:05:07 2009 UTC (5 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.53: +17 -34 lines
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updated kernel guide to remove references to 2.4 gentoo-sources. note: rsbac-sources will soon need to be moved to the old kernels section, as it's already been masked for removal. bug 256348.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.54 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.53 2008/05/23 20:46:20 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 swift 1.53 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
32 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.1
35     <abstract>
36 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
38     </abstract>
39    
40 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 swift 1.6 <license/>
43    
44 nightmorph 1.54 <version>1.21</version>
45     <date>2009-01-25</date>
46 swift 1.1
47     <chapter>
48     <title>Introduction</title>
49     <section>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53 swift 1.53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58 swift 1.1 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59     sources we make available to you.
60     </p>
61    
62 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
63 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75     mature.
76     </p>
77    
78     <p>
79 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85     </p>
86    
87 swift 1.1 </body>
88     </section>
89     </chapter>
90    
91     <chapter>
92 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 swift 1.1 <section>
94 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101     </p>
102    
103 cam 1.11 <p>
104     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106     </p>
107    
108 bennyc 1.9 </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 nightmorph 1.54 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
116 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
117     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
118 nightmorph 1.54 uncommon system architectures.
119 swift 1.24 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
123     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
124     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
125     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
126     official Linux kernel.
127 swift 1.1 </p>
128    
129     </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132 fox2mike 1.31 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
133 swift 1.1 <body>
134    
135     <p>
136 nightmorph 1.54 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
137     our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
138     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
139     link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
140     link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
141     stability/security-enhancements. Check
142     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
143 swift 1.17 </p>
144    
145     <p>
146 nightmorph 1.54 <c>rsbac-sources</c> is a 2.6-based kernel. It contains patches to use Rule Set
147     Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It is
148     maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC project</uri>, a
149     sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
150 swift 1.1 </p>
151    
152 neysx 1.29 <impo>
153     These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
154     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
155     </impo>
156 swift 1.1
157     </body>
158     </section>
159     <section>
160     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
161     <body>
162    
163     <p>
164 nightmorph 1.48 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
165     <c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
166     patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
167     patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
168     above and below.
169 swift 1.1 </p>
170    
171     </body>
172     </section>
173     </chapter>
174    
175     <chapter>
176 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
177 swift 1.1 <section>
178     <body>
179    
180     <p>
181 swift 1.53 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
182     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
183 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
184     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
185 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
186 swift 1.1 </p>
187    
188     </body>
189     </section>
190     <section>
191 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
192     <body>
193    
194     <p>
195     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
196     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
197     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
198 jkt 1.37 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
199 jkt 1.36 Kernel Mailing List).
200     </p>
201    
202     </body>
203     </section>
204     <section>
205 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
206     <body>
207    
208     <p>
209 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
210 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
211     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
212     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
213     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
214     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
215 swift 1.1 </p>
216    
217     <p>
218 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
219 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
220 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
221     doesn't always work as expected.
222 swift 1.1 </p>
223    
224     </body>
225     </section>
226     <section>
227 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
232 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
233     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
234     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
235 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
236 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
237    
238     </body>
239     </section>
240     <section>
241 swift 1.51 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
242 swift 1.1 <body>
243    
244     <p>
245 swift 1.52 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
246     both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
247 swift 1.53 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
248     implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
249 swift 1.52 <e>suspend2</e>.
250 swift 1.1 </p>
251    
252     <p>
253 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
254     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
255 swift 1.1 </p>
256    
257     </body>
258     </section>
259     <section>
260 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
261 swift 1.33 <body>
262    
263     <p>
264 swift 1.53 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
265 fox2mike 1.35 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
266     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
267 swift 1.53 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
268     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
269 swift 1.33 </p>
270    
271     <p>
272 swift 1.53 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
273 fox2mike 1.35 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
274 swift 1.33 </p>
275    
276     </body>
277     </section>
278 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
279     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
280     <body>
281    
282     <p>
283     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
284     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
285     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
286     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
287     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
288     instead.
289     </p>
290    
291     <p>
292 nightmorph 1.54 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
293 nightmorph 1.45 </p>
294    
295     </body>
296     </section>
297 swift 1.1 </chapter>
298 swift 1.17
299     <chapter>
300     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
301     <section>
302 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
303     <body>
304    
305     <p>
306     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
307     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
308     was removed as it went out of date.
309     </p>
310    
311     </body>
312     </section>
313     <section>
314     <title>alpha-sources</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
319     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
320     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
321     with no need for extra patches.
322     </p>
323    
324     </body>
325     </section>
326     <section>
327 neysx 1.50 <title>ck-sources</title>
328     <body>
329    
330     <p>
331 swift 1.53 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
332     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
333     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
334     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
335     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
336     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
337 neysx 1.50 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
338     </p>
339    
340     </body>
341     </section>
342     <section>
343 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
344     <body>
345    
346     <p>
347     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
348     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
349     </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353     <section>
354 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
355 swift 1.24 <body>
356    
357     <p>
358 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
359 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
360     </p>
361    
362     </body>
363     </section>
364     <section>
365 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
370     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
371     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
372     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
373     </p>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377     <section>
378 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
379     <body>
380    
381     <p>
382     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
383     package.
384     </p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </section>
388     <section>
389 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
390     <body>
391    
392     <p>
393     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
394     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
395     </p>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399     <section>
400 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
405 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
406 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
407 swift 1.18 </p>
408    
409     </body>
410     </section>
411 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
412 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
413     <body>
414    
415     <p>
416     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
417     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
418 swift 1.53 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
419     longer in the tree.
420 fox2mike 1.40 </p>
421    
422     </body>
423     </section>
424     <section>
425 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
426     <body>
427    
428     <p>
429 swift 1.53 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
430 fox2mike 1.35 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
431     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
432     </p>
433    
434     </body>
435     </section>
436 swift 1.17 </chapter>
437 swift 1.1 </guide>

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