/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.57 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Oct 23 05:37:14 2009 UTC (5 years ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.56: +20 -8 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
sh-sources is being removed, see armin76's email to the -dev ML

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.57 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.56 2009/10/16 11:53:34 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 swift 1.53 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 neysx 1.10 </author>
28 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30     </author>
31 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
32 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.1
35     <abstract>
36 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
38     </abstract>
39    
40 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 swift 1.6 <license/>
43    
44 nightmorph 1.57 <version>1.24</version>
45     <date>2009-10-22</date>
46 swift 1.1
47     <chapter>
48     <title>Introduction</title>
49     <section>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53 swift 1.53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58 swift 1.1 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59     sources we make available to you.
60     </p>
61    
62 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
63 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75     mature.
76     </p>
77    
78     <p>
79 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85     </p>
86    
87 swift 1.1 </body>
88     </section>
89     </chapter>
90    
91     <chapter>
92 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 swift 1.1 <section>
94 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101     </p>
102    
103 cam 1.11 <p>
104     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106     </p>
107    
108 bennyc 1.9 </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 nightmorph 1.54 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
116 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
117     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
118 nightmorph 1.54 uncommon system architectures.
119 swift 1.24 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
123     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
124     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
125     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
126     official Linux kernel.
127 swift 1.1 </p>
128    
129     </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132 nightmorph 1.56 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
133 swift 1.1 <body>
134    
135     <p>
136 nightmorph 1.54 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
137     our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
138     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
139     link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
140     link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
141     stability/security-enhancements. Check
142     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
143 swift 1.17 </p>
144    
145 neysx 1.29 <impo>
146 nightmorph 1.56 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
147     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
148 neysx 1.29 </impo>
149 swift 1.1
150     </body>
151     </section>
152     <section>
153     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
154     <body>
155    
156     <p>
157 nightmorph 1.57 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
158     <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
159     architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
160     support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
161 swift 1.1 </p>
162    
163     </body>
164     </section>
165     </chapter>
166    
167     <chapter>
168 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
169 swift 1.1 <section>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173 swift 1.53 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
174     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
175 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
176     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
177 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
178 swift 1.1 </p>
179    
180     </body>
181     </section>
182     <section>
183 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
184     <body>
185    
186     <p>
187     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
188     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
189     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
190 neysx 1.55 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
191     (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
192 jkt 1.36 </p>
193    
194     </body>
195     </section>
196     <section>
197 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
198     <body>
199    
200     <p>
201 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
202 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
203     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
204     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
205     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
206     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
207 swift 1.1 </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
211 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
212 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
213     doesn't always work as expected.
214 swift 1.1 </p>
215    
216     </body>
217     </section>
218     <section>
219 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
220     <body>
221    
222     <p>
223 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
224 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
225     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
226     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
227 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
228 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
229    
230     </body>
231     </section>
232     <section>
233 swift 1.51 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
234 swift 1.1 <body>
235    
236     <p>
237 swift 1.52 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
238     both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
239 swift 1.53 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
240     implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
241 swift 1.52 <e>suspend2</e>.
242 swift 1.1 </p>
243    
244     <p>
245 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
246     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
247 swift 1.1 </p>
248    
249     </body>
250     </section>
251     <section>
252 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
253 swift 1.33 <body>
254    
255     <p>
256 swift 1.53 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
257 fox2mike 1.35 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
258     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
259 swift 1.53 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
260     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
261 swift 1.33 </p>
262    
263     <p>
264 swift 1.53 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
265 fox2mike 1.35 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
266 swift 1.33 </p>
267    
268     </body>
269     </section>
270 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
271     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
272     <body>
273    
274     <p>
275     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
276     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
277     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
278     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
279     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
280     instead.
281     </p>
282    
283     <p>
284 nightmorph 1.54 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
285 nightmorph 1.45 </p>
286    
287     </body>
288     </section>
289 swift 1.1 </chapter>
290 swift 1.17
291     <chapter>
292     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
293     <section>
294 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
295     <body>
296    
297     <p>
298     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
299     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
300     was removed as it went out of date.
301     </p>
302    
303     </body>
304     </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>alpha-sources</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
311     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
312     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
313     with no need for extra patches.
314     </p>
315    
316     </body>
317     </section>
318     <section>
319 neysx 1.50 <title>ck-sources</title>
320     <body>
321    
322     <p>
323 swift 1.53 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
324     primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
325     configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
326     also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
327     and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
328     and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
329 neysx 1.50 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
330     </p>
331    
332     </body>
333     </section>
334     <section>
335 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
336     <body>
337    
338     <p>
339     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
340     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
341     </p>
342    
343     </body>
344     </section>
345     <section>
346 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
347 swift 1.24 <body>
348    
349     <p>
350 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
351 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
352     </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
362     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
363     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
364     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
365     </p>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
375     package.
376     </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380     <section>
381 nightmorph 1.56 <title>hppa-sources</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
386     compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
387     and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
388     with no need for extra patches.
389     </p>
390    
391     </body>
392     </section>
393     <section>
394 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
399     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
400     </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405 nightmorph 1.56 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
410     Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
411     been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
412     additional security features.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </section>
417     <section>
418 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
419     <body>
420    
421     <p>
422     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
423 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
424 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
425 swift 1.18 </p>
426    
427     </body>
428     </section>
429 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
430 nightmorph 1.57 <title>sh-sources</title>
431     <body>
432    
433     <p>
434     <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
435     compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
436     and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
437     with no need for extra patches.
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442     <section>
443 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
444     <body>
445    
446     <p>
447     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
448     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
449 swift 1.53 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
450     longer in the tree.
451 fox2mike 1.40 </p>
452    
453     </body>
454     </section>
455     <section>
456 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
457     <body>
458    
459     <p>
460 swift 1.53 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
461 fox2mike 1.35 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
462     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
463     </p>
464    
465     </body>
466     </section>
467 swift 1.17 </chapter>
468 swift 1.1 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20