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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.58 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.61 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.60 2010/04/18 04:48:53 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.58 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 nightmorph 1.58
8 swift 1.1 <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11     <author title="Contributor">
12 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 swift 1.1 </author>
14     <author title="Editor">
15 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 swift 1.1 </author>
17     <author title="Editor">
18 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19     </author>
20     <author title="Editor">
21     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 swift 1.1 </author>
23 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
24     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25     </author>
26 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
27 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 neysx 1.10 </author>
29 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
30     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31     </author>
32 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
33 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34     </author>
35 swift 1.1
36     <abstract>
37 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
39     </abstract>
40    
41 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 swift 1.6 <license/>
44    
45 nightmorph 1.61 <version>2</version>
46     <date>2010-09-05</date>
47 swift 1.1
48     <chapter>
49     <title>Introduction</title>
50     <section>
51     <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 swift 1.1 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60     sources we make available to you.
61     </p>
62    
63 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
64 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
65     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
66     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
67     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
68     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
69     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
70 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
71    
72     <p>
73     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
74     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
75     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
76     mature.
77     </p>
78    
79     <p>
80 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
81     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
82     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
83     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
84     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
85     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
86     </p>
87    
88 swift 1.1 </body>
89     </section>
90     </chapter>
91    
92     <chapter>
93 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
94 swift 1.1 <section>
95 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
96     <body>
97    
98     <p>
99     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
100     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
101     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
102     </p>
103    
104 cam 1.11 <p>
105     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
106     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
107     </p>
108    
109 bennyc 1.9 </body>
110     </section>
111     <section>
112 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
113 swift 1.1 <body>
114    
115     <p>
116 nightmorph 1.54 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
117 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
118     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
119 nightmorph 1.54 uncommon system architectures.
120 swift 1.24 </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
124     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
125     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
126     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
127     official Linux kernel.
128 swift 1.1 </p>
129    
130     </body>
131     </section>
132     <section>
133 nightmorph 1.56 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
134 swift 1.1 <body>
135    
136     <p>
137 nightmorph 1.54 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
138     our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
139     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
140     link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
141     link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
142     stability/security-enhancements. Check
143     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
144 swift 1.17 </p>
145    
146 neysx 1.29 <impo>
147 nightmorph 1.56 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
148     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
149 neysx 1.29 </impo>
150 swift 1.1
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     <section>
154     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
155     <body>
156    
157     <p>
158 nightmorph 1.57 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
159     <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
160     architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
161     support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
162 swift 1.1 </p>
163    
164     </body>
165     </section>
166     </chapter>
167    
168     <chapter>
169 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
170 swift 1.1 <section>
171     <body>
172    
173     <p>
174 swift 1.53 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
175     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
176 nightmorph 1.60 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
177 swift 1.17 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
178 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
179 swift 1.1 </p>
180    
181     </body>
182     </section>
183     <section>
184 nightmorph 1.61 <title>ck-sources</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
189     designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
190     for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
191     different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
192     when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
193     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
194     </p>
195    
196     </body>
197     </section>
198    
199     <section>
200 jkt 1.36 <title>git-sources</title>
201     <body>
202    
203     <p>
204     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
205     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
206     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
207 neysx 1.55 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
208     (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
209 jkt 1.36 </p>
210    
211     </body>
212     </section>
213     <section>
214 swift 1.1 <title>mm-sources</title>
215     <body>
216    
217     <p>
218 neysx 1.29 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
219 neysx 1.10 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
220     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
221     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
222     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
223     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <p>
227 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
228 neysx 1.29 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
229 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
230     doesn't always work as expected.
231 swift 1.1 </p>
232    
233     </body>
234     </section>
235     <section>
236 nightmorph 1.61 <title>pf-sources</title>
237     <body>
238    
239     <p>
240     The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
241     patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
242     <c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
243     the <uri
244     link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
245     <uri
246     link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
247     </p>
248    
249     </body>
250     </section>
251     <section>
252 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
253     <body>
254    
255     <p>
256 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
257 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
258     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
259     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
260 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
261 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
262    
263     </body>
264     </section>
265     <section>
266 swift 1.51 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
267 swift 1.1 <body>
268    
269     <p>
270 swift 1.52 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
271     both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
272 swift 1.53 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
273     implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
274 swift 1.52 <e>suspend2</e>.
275 swift 1.1 </p>
276    
277     <p>
278 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
279     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
280 swift 1.1 </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </section>
284     <section>
285 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
286 swift 1.33 <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 swift 1.53 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
290 fox2mike 1.35 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
291     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
292 swift 1.53 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
293     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
294 swift 1.33 </p>
295    
296     <p>
297 swift 1.53 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
298 fox2mike 1.35 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
299 swift 1.33 </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </section>
303 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
304     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
305     <body>
306    
307     <p>
308     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
309     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
310     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
311     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
312     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
313     instead.
314     </p>
315    
316     <p>
317 nightmorph 1.54 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
318 nightmorph 1.45 </p>
319    
320     </body>
321     </section>
322 nightmorph 1.58 <section>
323     <title>zen-sources</title>
324     <body>
325    
326     <p>
327     <c>zen-sources</c> is designed for desktop systems. It includes code not found
328     in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel has patches that add new features,
329     support additional hardware, and contain various tweaks for desktops.
330     </p>
331    
332     </body>
333     </section>
334 swift 1.1 </chapter>
335 swift 1.17
336     <chapter>
337     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
338     <section>
339 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
340     <body>
341    
342     <p>
343     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
344     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
345     was removed as it went out of date.
346     </p>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     <section>
351     <title>alpha-sources</title>
352     <body>
353    
354     <p>
355     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
356     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
357     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
358     with no need for extra patches.
359     </p>
360    
361     </body>
362     </section>
363     <section>
364 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
365     <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
369     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
370     </p>
371    
372     </body>
373     </section>
374     <section>
375 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
376 swift 1.24 <body>
377    
378     <p>
379 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
380 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
381     </p>
382    
383     </body>
384     </section>
385     <section>
386 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
387     <body>
388    
389     <p>
390     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
391     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
392     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
393     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
394     </p>
395    
396     </body>
397     </section>
398     <section>
399 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
400     <body>
401    
402     <p>
403     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
404     package.
405     </p>
406    
407     </body>
408     </section>
409     <section>
410 nightmorph 1.56 <title>hppa-sources</title>
411     <body>
412    
413     <p>
414     <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
415     compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
416     and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
417     with no need for extra patches.
418     </p>
419    
420     </body>
421     </section>
422     <section>
423 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
428     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
429     </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433     <section>
434 nightmorph 1.56 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
435     <body>
436    
437     <p>
438     <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
439     Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
440     been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
441     additional security features.
442     </p>
443    
444     </body>
445     </section>
446     <section>
447 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
448     <body>
449    
450     <p>
451     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
452 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
453 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
454 swift 1.18 </p>
455    
456     </body>
457     </section>
458 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
459 nightmorph 1.57 <title>sh-sources</title>
460     <body>
461    
462     <p>
463     <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
464     compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
465     and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
466     with no need for extra patches.
467     </p>
468    
469     </body>
470     </section>
471     <section>
472 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
473     <body>
474    
475     <p>
476     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
477     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
478 swift 1.53 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
479     longer in the tree.
480 fox2mike 1.40 </p>
481    
482     </body>
483     </section>
484     <section>
485 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
486     <body>
487    
488     <p>
489 swift 1.53 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
490 fox2mike 1.35 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
491     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
492     </p>
493    
494     </body>
495     </section>
496 swift 1.17 </chapter>
497 swift 1.1 </guide>

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