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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.58 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.63 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.62 2010/09/06 05:55:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.58 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 nightmorph 1.58
8 swift 1.1 <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.44 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11     <author title="Contributor">
12 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 swift 1.1 </author>
14     <author title="Editor">
15 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 swift 1.1 </author>
17     <author title="Editor">
18 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19     </author>
20     <author title="Editor">
21     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 swift 1.1 </author>
23 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
24     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25     </author>
26 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
27 neysx 1.22 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 neysx 1.10 </author>
29 fox2mike 1.35 <author title="Editor">
30     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31     </author>
32 nightmorph 1.48 <author title="Editor">
33 nightmorph 1.47 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34     </author>
35 swift 1.1
36     <abstract>
37 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
39     </abstract>
40    
41 fox2mike 1.35 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 swift 1.6 <license/>
44    
45 nightmorph 1.63 <version>4</version>
46     <date>2012-04-26</date>
47 swift 1.1
48     <chapter>
49     <title>Introduction</title>
50     <section>
51     <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 swift 1.1 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60     sources we make available to you.
61     </p>
62    
63 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
64 nightmorph 1.47 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
65     of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
66     when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
67     fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
68     maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
69     the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
70 nightmorph 1.46 </p>
71    
72     <p>
73     Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
74     Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
75     Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
76     mature.
77     </p>
78    
79     <p>
80 nightmorph 1.45 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
81     Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
82     please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
83     and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
84     we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
85     link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
86     </p>
87    
88 swift 1.1 </body>
89     </section>
90     </chapter>
91    
92     <chapter>
93 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
94 swift 1.1 <section>
95 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
96     <body>
97    
98     <p>
99     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
100     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
101     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
102     </p>
103    
104 cam 1.11 <p>
105     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
106     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
107     </p>
108    
109 bennyc 1.9 </body>
110     </section>
111     <section>
112 swift 1.26 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
113 swift 1.1 <body>
114    
115     <p>
116 nightmorph 1.54 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
117 nightmorph 1.45 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
118     security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
119 nightmorph 1.54 uncommon system architectures.
120 swift 1.24 </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
124     kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
125     can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
126     maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
127     official Linux kernel.
128 swift 1.1 </p>
129    
130     </body>
131     </section>
132     <section>
133 nightmorph 1.56 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
134 swift 1.1 <body>
135    
136     <p>
137 nightmorph 1.54 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
138     our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
139     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
140     link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
141     link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
142     stability/security-enhancements. Check
143     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
144 swift 1.17 </p>
145    
146 neysx 1.29 <impo>
147 nightmorph 1.56 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
148     <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
149 neysx 1.29 </impo>
150 swift 1.1
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     <section>
154 nightmorph 1.62 <title>ck-sources</title>
155 swift 1.1 <body>
156    
157     <p>
158 nightmorph 1.62 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
159     designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
160     for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
161     different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
162     when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
163     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
164 swift 1.1 </p>
165    
166     </body>
167     </section>
168 nightmorph 1.62 <section>
169     <title>git-sources</title>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173     The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
174     development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
175     kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
176     link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
177     (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
178     </p>
179 swift 1.1
180 nightmorph 1.62 </body>
181     </section>
182 swift 1.1 <section>
183 nightmorph 1.62 <title>xen-sources</title>
184 swift 1.1 <body>
185    
186     <p>
187 nightmorph 1.62 <c>xen-sources</c> lets you run multiple operating systems on a single physical
188     system. You can create virtual environments in which one or more guest operating
189     systems run on a <uri link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host
190     operating system.
191     </p>
192    
193     <p>
194     For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
195     link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
196 swift 1.1 </p>
197    
198     </body>
199     </section>
200     <section>
201 nightmorph 1.62 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
202 nightmorph 1.61 <body>
203    
204     <p>
205 nightmorph 1.62 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
206     <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
207     architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
208     support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
209 nightmorph 1.61 </p>
210    
211     </body>
212     </section>
213 nightmorph 1.62 </chapter>
214 nightmorph 1.61
215 nightmorph 1.62 <chapter>
216     <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
217 nightmorph 1.61 <section>
218 jkt 1.36 <body>
219    
220     <p>
221 nightmorph 1.62 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
222     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
223     <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
224     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
225     supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
226 jkt 1.36 </p>
227    
228     </body>
229     </section>
230 swift 1.1 <section>
231 nightmorph 1.61 <title>pf-sources</title>
232     <body>
233    
234     <p>
235     The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
236     patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
237     <c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
238     the <uri
239     link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
240     <uri
241     link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
242     </p>
243    
244     </body>
245     </section>
246     <section>
247 fox2mike 1.35 <title>openvz-sources</title>
248     <body>
249    
250     <p>
251 flammie 1.39 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
252 fox2mike 1.35 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
253     single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
254     applications do not conflict. For more information, see
255 flammie 1.39 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
256 fox2mike 1.35 </p>
257    
258     </body>
259     </section>
260     <section>
261 swift 1.51 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
262 swift 1.1 <body>
263    
264     <p>
265 swift 1.52 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
266     both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
267 swift 1.53 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
268     implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
269 swift 1.52 <e>suspend2</e>.
270 swift 1.1 </p>
271    
272     <p>
273 fox2mike 1.35 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
274     to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
275 swift 1.1 </p>
276    
277     </body>
278     </section>
279     <section>
280 fox2mike 1.35 <title>usermode-sources</title>
281 swift 1.33 <body>
282    
283     <p>
284 swift 1.53 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
285 fox2mike 1.35 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
286     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
287 swift 1.53 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
288     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
289 swift 1.33 </p>
290    
291     <p>
292 swift 1.53 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
293 fox2mike 1.35 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
294 swift 1.33 </p>
295    
296     </body>
297     </section>
298 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
299     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
300     <body>
301    
302     <p>
303     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
304     users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
305     released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
306     these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
307     unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
308     instead.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 nightmorph 1.54 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
313 nightmorph 1.45 </p>
314    
315     </body>
316     </section>
317 nightmorph 1.58 <section>
318     <title>zen-sources</title>
319     <body>
320    
321     <p>
322     <c>zen-sources</c> is designed for desktop systems. It includes code not found
323     in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel has patches that add new features,
324     support additional hardware, and contain various tweaks for desktops.
325     </p>
326    
327     </body>
328     </section>
329 swift 1.1 </chapter>
330 swift 1.17
331     <chapter>
332     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
333     <section>
334 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
335     <body>
336    
337     <p>
338     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
339     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
340     was removed as it went out of date.
341     </p>
342    
343     </body>
344     </section>
345     <section>
346     <title>alpha-sources</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
351     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
352     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
353     with no need for extra patches.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </section>
358     <section>
359 swift 1.24 <title>development-sources</title>
360     <body>
361    
362     <p>
363     <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
364     be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
365     </p>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370 alin 1.28 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
371 swift 1.24 <body>
372    
373     <p>
374 alin 1.28 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
375 swift 1.24 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
376     </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380     <section>
381 fox2mike 1.35 <title>grsec-sources</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385     The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
386     grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
387     other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
388     included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
389     </p>
390    
391     </body>
392     </section>
393     <section>
394 fox2mike 1.31 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
399     package.
400     </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405 nightmorph 1.56 <title>hppa-sources</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
410     compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
411     and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
412     with no need for extra patches.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </section>
417     <section>
418 nightmorph 1.63 <title>mm-sources</title>
419     <body>
420    
421     <p>
422     The <c>mm-sources</c> were based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contained
423     Andrew Morton's patch set. They includde the experimental and bleeding-edge
424     features that were going to be included in the official kernel (or that were
425     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They were known to be
426     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
427     other; kernel hackers used them as a testing ground for highly experimental new
428     stuff.
429     </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433     <section>
434 swift 1.24 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
435     <body>
436    
437     <p>
438     The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
439     <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
440     </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </section>
444     <section>
445 nightmorph 1.56 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449     <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
450     Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
451     been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
452     additional security features.
453     </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457     <section>
458 swift 1.20 <title>selinux-sources</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
463 fox2mike 1.32 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
464 fox2mike 1.31 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
465 swift 1.18 </p>
466    
467     </body>
468     </section>
469 fox2mike 1.35 <section>
470 nightmorph 1.57 <title>sh-sources</title>
471     <body>
472    
473     <p>
474     <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
475     compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
476     and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
477     with no need for extra patches.
478     </p>
479    
480     </body>
481     </section>
482     <section>
483 fox2mike 1.40 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
484     <body>
485    
486     <p>
487     The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
488     devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
489 swift 1.53 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
490     longer in the tree.
491 fox2mike 1.40 </p>
492    
493     </body>
494     </section>
495     <section>
496 fox2mike 1.35 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
497     <body>
498    
499     <p>
500 swift 1.53 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
501 fox2mike 1.35 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
502     at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
503     </p>
504    
505     </body>
506     </section>
507 swift 1.17 </chapter>
508 swift 1.1 </guide>

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