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Revision 1.21 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Nov 14 10:54:52 2004 UTC (9 years, 8 months ago) by plasmaroo
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.20: +3 -40 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Removed aa-sources section in the "Unsupported kernel packages" section since
aa-sources is no more, "ia64-sources was a 2.6 kernel" >> "ia64-sources was
a 2.4 kernel".

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.20 2004/11/14 10:17:52 swift Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28
29 <abstract>
30 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
31 provides through Portage.
32 </abstract>
33
34 <license/>
35
36 <version>0.7.7</version>
37 <date>November 14, 2004</date>
38
39 <chapter>
40 <title>Introduction</title>
41 <section>
42 <body>
43
44 <p>
45 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
46 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
47 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
48 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
49 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
50 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
51 sources we make available to you.
52 </p>
53
54 </body>
55 </section>
56 </chapter>
57
58 <chapter>
59 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
60 <section>
61 <title>genkernel</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
66 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
67 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>
71 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
72 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
73 </p>
74
75 </body>
76 </section>
77 <section>
78 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources and gentoo-dev-sources</title>
79 <body>
80
81 <p>
82 For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
83 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
84 kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
85 areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
86 <uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
87 security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
88 vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
89 (including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
90 <e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 For users looking to take advantage of the new features, stability, and
95 performance of Linux 2.6, we provide <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>. This package
96 consists of a minimal patchset providing fixes and enhancement for stability
97 and security. This kernel will become our recommended default at some point
98 in the near future.
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
103 most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
104 group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
105 kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
106 USB and PCI subsystems of the official Linux kernel.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources and development-sources</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
117 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
118 kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
119 (contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
120 Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
121 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable kernel branch
122 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
123 Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
124 Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This last kernel
125 is what all the patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
126 been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
127 counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
128 support.
129 </p>
130
131 <p>
132 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
133 opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
134 and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
135 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
136 </p>
137
138 </body>
139 </section>
140
141 <section>
142 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title>
143 <body>
144
145 <p>
146 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
147 running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
148 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
149 GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
150 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c>
155 but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
160 </p>
161
162 <table>
163 <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
164 <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
165 </table>
166
167 </body>
168 </section>
169 <section>
170 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
171 <body>
172
173 <p>
174 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
175 <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
176 and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
177 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of
178 the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets
179 mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that
180 the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
181 </p>
182
183 </body>
184 </section>
185 </chapter>
186
187 <chapter>
188 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
189 <section>
190 <body>
191
192 <p>
193 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
194 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
195 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
196 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
197 supported by the Gentoo team.
198 </p>
199
200 </body>
201 </section>
202 <section>
203 <title>ck-sources</title>
204 <body>
205
206 <p>
207 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
208 <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
209 throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
210 applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
211 combination of features for desktop use. See
212 <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
213 patches.
214 </p>
215
216 </body>
217 </section>
218 <section>
219 <title>grsec-sources</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <p>
223 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
224 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
225 security-related patches, support for PaX.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230 <section>
231 <title>mm-sources</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
236 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
237 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
238 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
239 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
240 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
241 </p>
242
243 <p>
244 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
245 <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
246 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
247 doesn't always work as expected.
248 </p>
249
250 </body>
251 </section>
252 <section>
253 <title>openmosix-sources</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
258 (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
259 <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
260 </p>
261
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title>pac-sources</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
270 (bero) patches. Be warned that this kernel is quite out of date and may be
271 removed from Portage soon.
272 </p>
273
274 </body>
275 </section>
276 <section>
277 <title>selinux-sources</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
282 patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
283 Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 <section>
289 <title>usermode-sources</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
294 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
295 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
296 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
297 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
302 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
303 </p>
304
305 </body>
306 </section>
307 <section>
308 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
313 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
314 at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
315 information.
316 </p>
317
318 </body>
319 </section>
320 <section>
321 <title>wolk-sources</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
326 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
327 many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
328 extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
329 of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
330 combination of the patches.
331 </p>
332
333 <p>
334 If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
335 kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 </chapter>
341
342 <chapter>
343 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
344 <section>
345 <title>aa-sources</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
350 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
351 was removed as it went out of date.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title>alpha-sources</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
362 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
363 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
364 with no need for extra patches.
365 </p>
366
367 </body>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>gaming-sources</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 <c>gaming-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with a broken scheduler patch applied
375 which enhanced performance in games. It was removed from Portage because some
376 problems accumulated, and the scheduler work being done in Linux 2.6 at the
377 same time offered the same or even better performance.
378 </p>
379
380 </body>
381 </section>
382 <section>
383 <title>gs-sources</title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 <c>gs-sources</c>, once advertised as our server-style patch set, became a
388 testing ground for prerelease 2.4 kernels. Unfortunately, the maintainer
389 became inactive and this kernel detoriated with new system updates and
390 became out of date.
391 </p>
392
393 </body>
394 </section>
395 <section>
396 <title>ia64-sources</title>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 <c>ia64-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with some fixes applied to provide
401 improved hardware compatibility for the IA-64 architecture. These fixes are
402 now included in the mainline 2.6 kernel tree, so this package was no longer
403 useful.
404 </p>
405
406 </body>
407 </section>
408 <section>
409 <title>pac-sources</title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 <c>pac-sources</c>, a kernel designed to enhance multimedia performance, has
414 been superseded by development work in the 2.6 development branch.
415 </p>
416
417 </body>
418 </section>
419 <section>
420 <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
421 <body>
422
423 <p>
424 <c>planet-ccrma-sources</c>, a kernel designed to enhance audio performance,
425 has been superseded by development work in the 2.6 development branch.
426 </p>
427
428 </body>
429 </section>
430 <section>
431 <title>selinux-sources</title>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
436 has been obseleted by security development in the 2.6 tree.
437 </p>
438
439 </body>
440 </section>
441 </chapter>
442
443 </guide>

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