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Revision 1.35 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Jan 13 09:57:50 2006 UTC (8 years, 8 months ago) by fox2mike
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File MIME type: application/xml
Gazillion Changes : Removed pegasos-sources (merged into mainline 2.6), Moved win4lin-sources (Security issues) and grsec-sources (merged into hardened-sources) into the previously provided section. Added information on sh-sources, openvz-sources and uclinux-sources. Moved stuff around a bit to maintain alphabetical ordering. Added CC-BY-SA comment.

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.34 2005/07/26 18:07:17 alin Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34 provides through Portage.
35 </abstract>
36
37 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39 <license/>
40
41 <version>1.11</version>
42 <date>2006-01-13</date>
43
44 <chapter>
45 <title>Introduction</title>
46 <section>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56 sources we make available to you.
57 </p>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 </chapter>
62
63 <chapter>
64 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
65 <section>
66 <title>genkernel</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
71 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
72 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
77 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
88 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89 specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90 on <e>most</e> architectures.
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
95 patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
96 compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
97 the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98 rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99 new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105 for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106 patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108 improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109 bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110 able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111 <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
117 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
118 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
119 official Linux kernel.
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
126 <body>
127
128 <p>
129 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131 sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132 not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133 a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138 under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143 creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144 Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145 Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146 only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147 development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154 mature.
155 </p>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159
160 <section>
161 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162 <body>
163
164 <p>
165 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
166 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
167 various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
168 <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
169 <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170 stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
171 and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
172 more information.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178 flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180 </p>
181
182 <impo>
183 These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
185 </impo>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
195 <c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197 patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198 above and below.
199 </p>
200
201 </body>
202 </section>
203 </chapter>
204
205 <chapter>
206 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207 <section>
208 <body>
209
210 <p>
211 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215 supported by the Gentoo team.
216 </p>
217
218 </body>
219 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>ck-sources</title>
222 <body>
223
224 <p>
225 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
226 primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
227 configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
228 also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
229 and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
230 and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
231 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232 </p>
233
234 </body>
235 </section>
236 <section>
237 <title>mm-sources</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <p>
241 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
242 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
243 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
244 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
245 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
246 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
247 </p>
248
249 <p>
250 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
251 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
252 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
253 doesn't always work as expected.
254 </p>
255
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section>
259 <title>openmosix-sources</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
264 (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
265 <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
266 </p>
267
268 </body>
269 </section>
270 <section>
271 <title>openvz-sources</title>
272 <body>
273
274 <p>
275 OpenVZ is a server virtualization soultion built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
276 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
277 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
278 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
279 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </section>
284 <section>
285 <title>suspend2-sources</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
290 which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
291 link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
292 and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
297 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 <section>
303 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
308 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
309 </p>
310
311 </body>
312 </section>
313 <section>
314 <title>usermode-sources</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
319 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
320 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
321 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
322 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
327 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </section>
332 </chapter>
333
334 <chapter>
335 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
336 <section>
337 <title>aa-sources</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
342 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
343 was removed as it went out of date.
344 </p>
345
346 </body>
347 </section>
348 <section>
349 <title>alpha-sources</title>
350 <body>
351
352 <p>
353 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
354 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
355 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
356 with no need for extra patches.
357 </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </section>
361 <section>
362 <title>development-sources</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <p>
366 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
367 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
368 </p>
369
370 </body>
371 </section>
372 <section>
373 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
378 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
379 </p>
380
381 </body>
382 </section>
383 <section>
384 <title>grsec-sources</title>
385 <body>
386
387 <p>
388 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
389 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
390 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
391 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </section>
396 <section>
397 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
402 package.
403 </p>
404
405 </body>
406 </section>
407 <section>
408 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
409 <body>
410
411 <p>
412 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
413 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
414 </p>
415
416 </body>
417 </section>
418 <section>
419 <title>selinux-sources</title>
420 <body>
421
422 <p>
423 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
424 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
425 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
426 </p>
427
428 </body>
429 </section>
430 <section>
431 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
436 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
437 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </section>
442 </chapter>
443 </guide>

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