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improve openmosix's description for bug 120872

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.37 2006/01/13 19:17:59 jkt Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34 provides through Portage.
35 </abstract>
36
37 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39 <license/>
40
41 <version>1.13</version>
42 <date>2006-01-30</date>
43
44 <chapter>
45 <title>Introduction</title>
46 <section>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56 sources we make available to you.
57 </p>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 </chapter>
62
63 <chapter>
64 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
65 <section>
66 <title>genkernel</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
71 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
72 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
77 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
88 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89 specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90 on <e>most</e> architectures.
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
95 patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
96 compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
97 the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98 rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99 new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105 for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106 patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108 improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109 bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110 able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111 <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
117 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
118 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
119 official Linux kernel.
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
126 <body>
127
128 <p>
129 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131 sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132 not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133 a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138 under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143 creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144 Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145 Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146 only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147 development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154 mature.
155 </p>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159
160 <section>
161 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162 <body>
163
164 <p>
165 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
166 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
167 various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
168 <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
169 <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170 stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
171 and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
172 more information.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178 flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180 </p>
181
182 <impo>
183 These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
185 </impo>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
195 <c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197 patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198 above and below.
199 </p>
200
201 </body>
202 </section>
203 </chapter>
204
205 <chapter>
206 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207 <section>
208 <body>
209
210 <p>
211 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215 supported by the Gentoo team.
216 </p>
217
218 </body>
219 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>ck-sources</title>
222 <body>
223
224 <p>
225 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
226 primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
227 configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
228 also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
229 and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
230 and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
231 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232 </p>
233
234 </body>
235 </section>
236 <section>
237 <title>git-sources</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <p>
241 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
245 Kernel Mailing List).
246 </p>
247
248 </body>
249 </section>
250 <section>
251 <title>mm-sources</title>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
256 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
257 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
258 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
259 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
260 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
265 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
266 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
267 doesn't always work as expected.
268 </p>
269
270 </body>
271 </section>
272 <section>
273 <title>openmosix-sources</title>
274 <body>
275
276 <p>
277 The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
278 (a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
279 information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </section>
284 <section>
285 <title>openvz-sources</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 OpenVZ is a server virtualization soultion built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
290 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
291 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
292 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
293 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>
294 </p>
295
296 </body>
297 </section>
298 <section>
299 <title>suspend2-sources</title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
304 which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305 link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
306 and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
307 </p>
308
309 <p>
310 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312 </p>
313
314 </body>
315 </section>
316 <section>
317 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section>
328 <title>usermode-sources</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
342 </p>
343
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 </chapter>
347
348 <chapter>
349 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
350 <section>
351 <title>aa-sources</title>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
356 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
357 was removed as it went out of date.
358 </p>
359
360 </body>
361 </section>
362 <section>
363 <title>alpha-sources</title>
364 <body>
365
366 <p>
367 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
368 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
369 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
370 with no need for extra patches.
371 </p>
372
373 </body>
374 </section>
375 <section>
376 <title>development-sources</title>
377 <body>
378
379 <p>
380 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
381 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
382 </p>
383
384 </body>
385 </section>
386 <section>
387 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
388 <body>
389
390 <p>
391 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
392 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
393 </p>
394
395 </body>
396 </section>
397 <section>
398 <title>grsec-sources</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
403 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
404 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
405 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
406 </p>
407
408 </body>
409 </section>
410 <section>
411 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
412 <body>
413
414 <p>
415 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
416 package.
417 </p>
418
419 </body>
420 </section>
421 <section>
422 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
427 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
428 </p>
429
430 </body>
431 </section>
432 <section>
433 <title>selinux-sources</title>
434 <body>
435
436 <p>
437 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
438 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
439 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </section>
444 <section>
445 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
452 </p>
453
454 </body>
455 </section>
456 </chapter>
457 </guide>

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