/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.44 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Nov 29 15:48:57 2006 UTC (7 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.43: +3 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
revert previous change

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.42 2006/09/06 14:49:37 vapier Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34 provides through Portage.
35 </abstract>
36
37 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39 <license/>
40
41 <version>1.14</version>
42 <date>2006-07-04</date>
43
44 <chapter>
45 <title>Introduction</title>
46 <section>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56 sources we make available to you.
57 </p>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 </chapter>
62
63 <chapter>
64 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
65 <section>
66 <title>genkernel</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
71 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
72 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
77 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
88 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89 specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90 on <e>most</e> architectures.
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
95 patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
96 compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
97 the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98 rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99 new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105 for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106 patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108 improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109 bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110 able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111 <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
117 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
118 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
119 official Linux kernel.
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
126 <body>
127
128 <p>
129 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131 sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132 not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133 a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138 under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143 creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144 Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145 Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146 only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147 development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154 mature.
155 </p>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159
160 <section>
161 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162 <body>
163
164 <p>
165 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
166 at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
167 various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
168 <uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
169 <uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170 stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
171 and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
172 more information.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 <c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177 (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178 flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179 project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180 </p>
181
182 <impo>
183 These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
185 </impo>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c> <c>sparc-sources</c>
195 and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
196 specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
197 features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
198 </p>
199
200 </body>
201 </section>
202 </chapter>
203
204 <chapter>
205 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
206 <section>
207 <body>
208
209 <p>
210 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
211 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
212 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
213 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
214 supported by the Gentoo team.
215 </p>
216
217 </body>
218 </section>
219 <section>
220 <title>ck-sources</title>
221 <body>
222
223 <p>
224 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
225 primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
226 configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
227 also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
228 and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
229 and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
230 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
231 </p>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>git-sources</title>
237 <body>
238
239 <p>
240 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
241 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
242 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
243 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
244 Kernel Mailing List).
245 </p>
246
247 </body>
248 </section>
249 <section>
250 <title>mm-sources</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
255 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
256 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
257 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
258 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
259 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
264 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
265 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
266 doesn't always work as expected.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section>
272 <title>openmosix-sources</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
277 (a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
278 information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
279 </p>
280
281 </body>
282 </section>
283 <section>
284 <title>openvz-sources</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
289 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
290 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
291 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
292 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
293 </p>
294
295 </body>
296 </section>
297 <section>
298 <title>suspend2-sources</title>
299 <body>
300
301 <p>
302 The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
303 which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
304 link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
305 and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
310 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section>
316 <title>usermode-sources</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
321 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
322 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
323 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
324 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
329 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 </section>
334 </chapter>
335
336 <chapter>
337 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
338 <section>
339 <title>aa-sources</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
344 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
345 was removed as it went out of date.
346 </p>
347
348 </body>
349 </section>
350 <section>
351 <title>alpha-sources</title>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
356 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
357 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
358 with no need for extra patches.
359 </p>
360
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 <section>
364 <title>development-sources</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
369 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
370 </p>
371
372 </body>
373 </section>
374 <section>
375 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
376 <body>
377
378 <p>
379 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
380 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
381 </p>
382
383 </body>
384 </section>
385 <section>
386 <title>grsec-sources</title>
387 <body>
388
389 <p>
390 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
391 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
392 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
393 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
394 </p>
395
396 </body>
397 </section>
398 <section>
399 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
404 package.
405 </p>
406
407 </body>
408 </section>
409 <section>
410 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
411 <body>
412
413 <p>
414 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
415 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
416 </p>
417
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 <section>
421 <title>selinux-sources</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
426 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
427 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
428 </p>
429
430 </body>
431 </section>
432 <section>
433 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
434 <body>
435
436 <p>
437 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
438 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
439 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no longer
440 in the tree.
441 </p>
442
443 </body>
444 </section>
445 <section>
446 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
447 <body>
448
449 <p>
450 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
451 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
452 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
453 </p>
454
455 </body>
456 </section>
457 </chapter>
458 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20