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Revision 1.54 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jan 25 21:05:07 2009 UTC (5 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
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updated kernel guide to remove references to 2.4 gentoo-sources. note: rsbac-sources will soon need to be moved to the old kernels section, as it's already been masked for removal. bug 256348.

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.53 2008/05/23 20:46:20 swift Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 provides through Portage.
38 </abstract>
39
40 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 <license/>
43
44 <version>1.21</version>
45 <date>2009-01-25</date>
46
47 <chapter>
48 <title>Introduction</title>
49 <section>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59 sources we make available to you.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64 of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65 when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66 fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67 maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68 the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 </p>
70
71 <p>
72 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75 mature.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81 please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82 and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83 we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84 link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </section>
89 </chapter>
90
91 <chapter>
92 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 <section>
94 <title>genkernel</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106 </p>
107
108 </body>
109 </section>
110 <section>
111 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
116 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
117 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
118 uncommon system architectures.
119 </p>
120
121 <p>
122 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
123 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
124 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
125 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
126 official Linux kernel.
127 </p>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <p>
136 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
137 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
138 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
139 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
140 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
141 stability/security-enhancements. Check
142 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
143 </p>
144
145 <p>
146 <c>rsbac-sources</c> is a 2.6-based kernel. It contains patches to use Rule Set
147 Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It is
148 maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC project</uri>, a
149 sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
150 </p>
151
152 <impo>
153 These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
154 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
155 </impo>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159 <section>
160 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
161 <body>
162
163 <p>
164 <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
165 <c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
166 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
167 patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
168 above and below.
169 </p>
170
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 </chapter>
174
175 <chapter>
176 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
177 <section>
178 <body>
179
180 <p>
181 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
182 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
183 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
184 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
185 supported by the Gentoo team.
186 </p>
187
188 </body>
189 </section>
190 <section>
191 <title>git-sources</title>
192 <body>
193
194 <p>
195 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
196 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
197 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
198 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
199 Kernel Mailing List).
200 </p>
201
202 </body>
203 </section>
204 <section>
205 <title>mm-sources</title>
206 <body>
207
208 <p>
209 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
210 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
211 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
212 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
213 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
214 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
215 </p>
216
217 <p>
218 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
219 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
220 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
221 doesn't always work as expected.
222 </p>
223
224 </body>
225 </section>
226 <section>
227 <title>openvz-sources</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
232 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
233 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
234 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
235 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
236 </p>
237
238 </body>
239 </section>
240 <section>
241 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
242 <body>
243
244 <p>
245 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
246 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
247 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
248 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
249 <e>suspend2</e>.
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
254 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
255 </p>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 <section>
260 <title>usermode-sources</title>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
265 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
266 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
267 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
268 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
273 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
274 </p>
275
276 </body>
277 </section>
278 <section>
279 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
284 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
285 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
286 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
287 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
288 instead.
289 </p>
290
291 <p>
292 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
293 </p>
294
295 </body>
296 </section>
297 </chapter>
298
299 <chapter>
300 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
301 <section>
302 <title>aa-sources</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
307 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
308 was removed as it went out of date.
309 </p>
310
311 </body>
312 </section>
313 <section>
314 <title>alpha-sources</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
319 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
320 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
321 with no need for extra patches.
322 </p>
323
324 </body>
325 </section>
326 <section>
327 <title>ck-sources</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
332 primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
333 configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
334 also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
335 and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
336 and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
337 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
338 </p>
339
340 </body>
341 </section>
342 <section>
343 <title>development-sources</title>
344 <body>
345
346 <p>
347 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
348 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
349 </p>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
359 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
360 </p>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section>
365 <title>grsec-sources</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
370 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
371 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
372 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
373 </p>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 <section>
378 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
383 package.
384 </p>
385
386 </body>
387 </section>
388 <section>
389 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>
393 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
394 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
395 </p>
396
397 </body>
398 </section>
399 <section>
400 <title>selinux-sources</title>
401 <body>
402
403 <p>
404 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
405 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
406 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
407 </p>
408
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section>
412 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
413 <body>
414
415 <p>
416 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
417 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
418 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
419 longer in the tree.
420 </p>
421
422 </body>
423 </section>
424 <section>
425 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
430 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
431 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
432 </p>
433
434 </body>
435 </section>
436 </chapter>
437 </guide>

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