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Revision 1.56 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Oct 16 11:53:34 2009 UTC (4 years, 11 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.55: +33 -14 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
WTF no one told us that hppa-sources and rsbac-sources were removed from the tree many months ago. Updated the guide to reflect this. also added cell-sources to architecture dependent kernels section.

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.55 2009/02/14 11:25:12 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
37 provides through Portage.
38 </abstract>
39
40 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
41 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
42 <license/>
43
44 <version>1.23</version>
45 <date>2009-10-16</date>
46
47 <chapter>
48 <title>Introduction</title>
49 <section>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
54 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
55 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
56 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
57 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
58 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
59 sources we make available to you.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64 of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65 when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66 fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67 maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68 the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69 </p>
70
71 <p>
72 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75 mature.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81 please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82 and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83 we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84 link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </section>
89 </chapter>
90
91 <chapter>
92 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
93 <section>
94 <title>genkernel</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
99 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
100 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
105 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
106 </p>
107
108 </body>
109 </section>
110 <section>
111 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
116 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
117 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
118 uncommon system architectures.
119 </p>
120
121 <p>
122 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
123 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
124 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
125 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
126 official Linux kernel.
127 </p>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <p>
136 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
137 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
138 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
139 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
140 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
141 stability/security-enhancements. Check
142 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
143 </p>
144
145 <impo>
146 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
147 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
148 </impo>
149
150 </body>
151 </section>
152 <section>
153 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
154 <body>
155
156 <p>
157 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
158 <c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
159 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
160 patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
161 above and below.
162 </p>
163
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 </chapter>
167
168 <chapter>
169 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
170 <section>
171 <body>
172
173 <p>
174 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
175 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
176 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
177 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
178 supported by the Gentoo team.
179 </p>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section>
184 <title>git-sources</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
189 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
190 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
191 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
192 (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
193 </p>
194
195 </body>
196 </section>
197 <section>
198 <title>mm-sources</title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
203 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
204 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
205 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
206 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
207 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
212 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
213 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
214 doesn't always work as expected.
215 </p>
216
217 </body>
218 </section>
219 <section>
220 <title>openvz-sources</title>
221 <body>
222
223 <p>
224 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
225 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
226 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
227 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
228 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
229 </p>
230
231 </body>
232 </section>
233 <section>
234 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
239 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
240 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
241 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
242 <e>suspend2</e>.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
247 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
248 </p>
249
250 </body>
251 </section>
252 <section>
253 <title>usermode-sources</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
258 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
259 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
260 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
261 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
262 </p>
263
264 <p>
265 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
266 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section>
272 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
277 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
278 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
279 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
280 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
281 instead.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 </chapter>
291
292 <chapter>
293 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
294 <section>
295 <title>aa-sources</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>
299 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
300 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
301 was removed as it went out of date.
302 </p>
303
304 </body>
305 </section>
306 <section>
307 <title>alpha-sources</title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
312 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
313 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
314 with no need for extra patches.
315 </p>
316
317 </body>
318 </section>
319 <section>
320 <title>ck-sources</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
325 primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
326 configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
327 also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
328 and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
329 and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
330 <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
331 </p>
332
333 </body>
334 </section>
335 <section>
336 <title>development-sources</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
341 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
342 </p>
343
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 <section>
347 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
352 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>grsec-sources</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
363 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
364 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
365 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section>
371 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
376 package.
377 </p>
378
379 </body>
380 </section>
381 <section>
382 <title>hppa-sources</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
387 compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
388 and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
389 with no need for extra patches.
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </section>
394 <section>
395 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
400 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </section>
405 <section>
406 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
411 Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
412 been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
413 additional security features.
414 </p>
415
416 </body>
417 </section>
418 <section>
419 <title>selinux-sources</title>
420 <body>
421
422 <p>
423 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
424 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
425 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
426 </p>
427
428 </body>
429 </section>
430 <section>
431 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
436 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
437 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
438 longer in the tree.
439 </p>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443 <section>
444 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
445 <body>
446
447 <p>
448 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
449 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
450 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
451 </p>
452
453 </body>
454 </section>
455 </chapter>
456 </guide>

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