/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.60 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Apr 18 04:48:53 2010 UTC (4 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.59: +2 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Will wonders never cease. ck-sources is back in the tree. I discovered this after reading the front page of g.o, so I added them back to the list.

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.59 2010/04/18 04:30:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Contributor">
12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 </author>
23 <author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25 </author>
26 <author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 </author>
29 <author title="Editor">
30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31 </author>
32 <author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34 </author>
35
36 <abstract>
37 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 provides through Portage.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 <license/>
44
45 <version>1.25</version>
46 <date>2010-04-17</date>
47
48 <chapter>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <section>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60 sources we make available to you.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
65 of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
66 when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
67 fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
68 maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
69 the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
74 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
75 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
76 mature.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
81 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
82 please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
83 and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
84 we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
85 link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </section>
90 </chapter>
91
92 <chapter>
93 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
94 <section>
95 <title>genkernel</title>
96 <body>
97
98 <p>
99 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
100 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
101 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
106 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
117 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
118 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
119 uncommon system architectures.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
124 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
125 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
126 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
127 official Linux kernel.
128 </p>
129
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
134 <body>
135
136 <p>
137 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
138 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
139 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
140 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
141 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
142 stability/security-enhancements. Check
143 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
144 </p>
145
146 <impo>
147 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
148 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
149 </impo>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
159 <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
160 architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
161 support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
162 </p>
163
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 </chapter>
167
168 <chapter>
169 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
170 <section>
171 <body>
172
173 <p>
174 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
175 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
176 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
177 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
178 supported by the Gentoo team.
179 </p>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section>
184 <title>git-sources</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
189 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
190 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
191 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
192 (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
193 </p>
194
195 </body>
196 </section>
197 <section>
198 <title>mm-sources</title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
203 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
204 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
205 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
206 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
207 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
212 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
213 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
214 doesn't always work as expected.
215 </p>
216
217 </body>
218 </section>
219 <section>
220 <title>openvz-sources</title>
221 <body>
222
223 <p>
224 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
225 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
226 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
227 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
228 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
229 </p>
230
231 </body>
232 </section>
233 <section>
234 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
239 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
240 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
241 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
242 <e>suspend2</e>.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
247 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
248 </p>
249
250 </body>
251 </section>
252 <section>
253 <title>usermode-sources</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
258 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
259 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
260 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
261 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
262 </p>
263
264 <p>
265 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
266 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section>
272 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
277 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
278 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
279 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
280 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
281 instead.
282 </p>
283
284 <p>
285 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 <section>
291 <title>zen-sources</title>
292 <body>
293
294 <p>
295 <c>zen-sources</c> is designed for desktop systems. It includes code not found
296 in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel has patches that add new features,
297 support additional hardware, and contain various tweaks for desktops.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 <section>
303 <title>ck-sources</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
308 designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
309 for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
310 different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
311 when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
312 <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
313 </p>
314
315 </body>
316 </section>
317 </chapter>
318
319 <chapter>
320 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
321 <section>
322 <title>aa-sources</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
327 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
328 was removed as it went out of date.
329 </p>
330
331 </body>
332 </section>
333 <section>
334 <title>alpha-sources</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
339 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
340 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
341 with no need for extra patches.
342 </p>
343
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 <section>
347 <title>development-sources</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
352 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
363 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
364 </p>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section>
369 <title>grsec-sources</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
374 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
375 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
376 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
377 </p>
378
379 </body>
380 </section>
381 <section>
382 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
387 package.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392 <section>
393 <title>hppa-sources</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
398 compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
399 and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
400 with no need for extra patches.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </section>
405 <section>
406 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
411 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
412 </p>
413
414 </body>
415 </section>
416 <section>
417 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
418 <body>
419
420 <p>
421 <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
422 Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
423 been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
424 additional security features.
425 </p>
426
427 </body>
428 </section>
429 <section>
430 <title>selinux-sources</title>
431 <body>
432
433 <p>
434 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
435 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
436 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
437 </p>
438
439 </body>
440 </section>
441 <section>
442 <title>sh-sources</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
447 compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
448 and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
449 with no need for extra patches.
450 </p>
451
452 </body>
453 </section>
454 <section>
455 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
456 <body>
457
458 <p>
459 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
460 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
461 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
462 longer in the tree.
463 </p>
464
465 </body>
466 </section>
467 <section>
468 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
469 <body>
470
471 <p>
472 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
473 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
474 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
475 </p>
476
477 </body>
478 </section>
479 </chapter>
480 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20