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add xen-sources to the list of kernels, shuffle around the list of kernels supported by the Kernel team

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.61 2010/09/06 05:03:31 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Contributor">
12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 </author>
23 <author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25 </author>
26 <author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 </author>
29 <author title="Editor">
30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31 </author>
32 <author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34 </author>
35
36 <abstract>
37 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 provides through Portage.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 <license/>
44
45 <version>3</version>
46 <date>2010-09-05</date>
47
48 <chapter>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <section>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60 sources we make available to you.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
65 of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
66 when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
67 fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
68 maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
69 the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
74 Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
75 Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
76 mature.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
81 Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
82 please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
83 and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
84 we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
85 link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </section>
90 </chapter>
91
92 <chapter>
93 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
94 <section>
95 <title>genkernel</title>
96 <body>
97
98 <p>
99 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
100 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
101 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
106 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
107 </p>
108
109 </body>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
117 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
118 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
119 uncommon system architectures.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
124 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
125 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
126 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
127 official Linux kernel.
128 </p>
129
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
134 <body>
135
136 <p>
137 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
138 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
139 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
140 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
141 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
142 stability/security-enhancements. Check
143 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
144 </p>
145
146 <impo>
147 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
148 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
149 </impo>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>ck-sources</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
159 designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
160 for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
161 different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
162 when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
163 <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 <section>
169 <title>git-sources</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
174 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
175 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
176 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
177 (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
178 </p>
179
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>xen-sources</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 <c>xen-sources</c> lets you run multiple operating systems on a single physical
188 system. You can create virtual environments in which one or more guest operating
189 systems run on a <uri link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host
190 operating system.
191 </p>
192
193 <p>
194 For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
195 link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
196 </p>
197
198 </body>
199 </section>
200 <section>
201 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
202 <body>
203
204 <p>
205 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
206 <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
207 architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
208 support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
209 </p>
210
211 </body>
212 </section>
213 </chapter>
214
215 <chapter>
216 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
217 <section>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
222 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
223 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
224 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
225 supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230
231 <section>
232 <title>mm-sources</title>
233 <body>
234
235 <p>
236 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
237 Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
238 features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
239 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
240 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
241 other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
246 <c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
247 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
248 doesn't always work as expected.
249 </p>
250
251 </body>
252 </section>
253 <section>
254 <title>pf-sources</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
259 patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
260 <c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
261 the <uri
262 link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
263 <uri
264 link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
265 </p>
266
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 <section>
270 <title>openvz-sources</title>
271 <body>
272
273 <p>
274 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
275 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
276 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
277 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
278 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
279 </p>
280
281 </body>
282 </section>
283 <section>
284 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
289 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
290 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
291 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
292 <e>suspend2</e>.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
297 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 <section>
303 <title>usermode-sources</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
308 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
309 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
310 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
311 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
316 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </section>
321 <section>
322 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
327 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
328 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
329 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
330 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
331 instead.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 <section>
341 <title>zen-sources</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 <c>zen-sources</c> is designed for desktop systems. It includes code not found
346 in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel has patches that add new features,
347 support additional hardware, and contain various tweaks for desktops.
348 </p>
349
350 </body>
351 </section>
352 </chapter>
353
354 <chapter>
355 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
356 <section>
357 <title>aa-sources</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
362 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
363 was removed as it went out of date.
364 </p>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section>
369 <title>alpha-sources</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
374 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
375 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
376 with no need for extra patches.
377 </p>
378
379 </body>
380 </section>
381 <section>
382 <title>development-sources</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
387 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392 <section>
393 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
398 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
399 </p>
400
401 </body>
402 </section>
403 <section>
404 <title>grsec-sources</title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
409 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
410 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
411 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
412 </p>
413
414 </body>
415 </section>
416 <section>
417 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
418 <body>
419
420 <p>
421 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
422 package.
423 </p>
424
425 </body>
426 </section>
427 <section>
428 <title>hppa-sources</title>
429 <body>
430
431 <p>
432 <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
433 compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
434 and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
435 with no need for extra patches.
436 </p>
437
438 </body>
439 </section>
440 <section>
441 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
446 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
447 </p>
448
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 <section>
452 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
453 <body>
454
455 <p>
456 <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
457 Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
458 been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
459 additional security features.
460 </p>
461
462 </body>
463 </section>
464 <section>
465 <title>selinux-sources</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
470 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
471 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
472 </p>
473
474 </body>
475 </section>
476 <section>
477 <title>sh-sources</title>
478 <body>
479
480 <p>
481 <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
482 compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
483 and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
484 with no need for extra patches.
485 </p>
486
487 </body>
488 </section>
489 <section>
490 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
495 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
496 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
497 longer in the tree.
498 </p>
499
500 </body>
501 </section>
502 <section>
503 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
504 <body>
505
506 <p>
507 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
508 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
509 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
510 </p>
511
512 </body>
513 </section>
514 </chapter>
515 </guide>

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