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zen-sources is being removed from portage; moved to previous kernels section. also kicked out old 2.4/2.6 kernel info no longer relevant to the default 3.x kernels used/supported everywhere.

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.63 2012/04/27 04:58:55 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Contributor">
12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 </author>
23 <author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25 </author>
26 <author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 </author>
29 <author title="Editor">
30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31 </author>
32 <author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34 </author>
35
36 <abstract>
37 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 provides through Portage.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 <license/>
44
45 <version>5</version>
46 <date>2012-05-27</date>
47
48 <chapter>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <section>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60 sources we make available to you.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </section>
65 </chapter>
66
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
69 <section>
70 <title>genkernel</title>
71 <body>
72
73 <p>
74 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
75 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
76 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
81 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 <section>
87 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
92 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 3.x, lightly patched to fix
93 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
94 uncommon system architectures.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
99 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
100 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
101 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
102 official Linux kernel.
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 </section>
107 <section>
108 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
113 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
114 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
115 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
116 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
117 stability/security-enhancements. Check
118 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
119 </p>
120
121 <impo>
122 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
123 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
124 </impo>
125
126 </body>
127 </section>
128 <section>
129 <title>ck-sources</title>
130 <body>
131
132 <p>
133 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
134 designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
135 for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
136 different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
137 when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
138 <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section>
144 <title>git-sources</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
149 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
150 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
151 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
152 (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </section>
157 <section>
158 <title>xen-sources</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 <c>xen-sources</c> lets you run multiple operating systems on a single physical
163 system. You can create virtual environments in which one or more guest operating
164 systems run on a <uri link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host
165 operating system.
166 </p>
167
168 <p>
169 For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
170 link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
171 </p>
172
173 </body>
174 </section>
175 <section>
176 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <p>
180 <c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
181 <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
182 architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
183 support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
184 </p>
185
186 </body>
187 </section>
188 </chapter>
189
190 <chapter>
191 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
192 <section>
193 <body>
194
195 <p>
196 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
197 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
198 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
199 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
200 supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
201 </p>
202
203 </body>
204 </section>
205 <section>
206 <title>pf-sources</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <p>
210 The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
211 patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
212 <c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
213 the <uri
214 link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
215 <uri
216 link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </section>
221 <section>
222 <title>openvz-sources</title>
223 <body>
224
225 <p>
226 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
227 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
228 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
229 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
230 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
231 </p>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
237 <body>
238
239 <p>
240 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
241 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
242 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
243 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
244 <e>suspend2</e>.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
249 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
250 </p>
251
252 </body>
253 </section>
254 <section>
255 <title>usermode-sources</title>
256 <body>
257
258 <p>
259 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
260 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
261 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
262 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
263 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
268 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
269 </p>
270
271 </body>
272 </section>
273 <section>
274 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
275 <body>
276
277 <p>
278 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
279 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
280 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
281 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
282 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
283 instead.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.6 and 3.x.
288 </p>
289
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 </chapter>
293
294 <chapter>
295 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
296 <section>
297 <title>aa-sources</title>
298 <body>
299
300 <p>
301 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
302 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
303 was removed as it went out of date.
304 </p>
305
306 </body>
307 </section>
308 <section>
309 <title>alpha-sources</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
314 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
315 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
316 with no need for extra patches.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </section>
321 <section>
322 <title>development-sources</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
327 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </section>
332 <section>
333 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
334 <body>
335
336 <p>
337 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
338 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
339 </p>
340
341 </body>
342 </section>
343 <section>
344 <title>grsec-sources</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
349 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
350 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
351 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
362 package.
363 </p>
364
365 </body>
366 </section>
367 <section>
368 <title>hppa-sources</title>
369 <body>
370
371 <p>
372 <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
373 compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
374 and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
375 with no need for extra patches.
376 </p>
377
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 <section>
381 <title>mm-sources</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 The <c>mm-sources</c> were based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contained
386 Andrew Morton's patch set. They includde the experimental and bleeding-edge
387 features that were going to be included in the official kernel (or that were
388 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They were known to be
389 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
390 other; kernel hackers used them as a testing ground for highly experimental new
391 stuff.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </section>
396 <section>
397 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
402 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
403 </p>
404
405 </body>
406 </section>
407 <section>
408 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
409 <body>
410
411 <p>
412 <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
413 Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
414 been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
415 additional security features.
416 </p>
417
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 <section>
421 <title>selinux-sources</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
426 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
427 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
428 </p>
429
430 </body>
431 </section>
432 <section>
433 <title>sh-sources</title>
434 <body>
435
436 <p>
437 <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
438 compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
439 and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
440 with no need for extra patches.
441 </p>
442
443 </body>
444 </section>
445 <section>
446 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
447 <body>
448
449 <p>
450 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
451 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
452 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
453 longer in the tree.
454 </p>
455
456 </body>
457 </section>
458 <section>
459 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
460 <body>
461
462 <p>
463 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
464 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
465 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
466 </p>
467
468 </body>
469 </section>
470 <section>
471 <title>zen-sources</title>
472 <body>
473
474 <p>
475 <c>zen-sources</c> was designed for desktop systems. It included code not found
476 in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel had patches that added new features,
477 supported additional hardware, and contained various tweaks for desktops.
478 </p>
479
480 </body>
481 </section>
482 </chapter>
483 </guide>

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