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Revision 1.66 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Dec 31 08:19:10 2012 UTC (18 months, 3 weeks ago) by nightmorph
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cell-sources has been removed from portage. added new section on architecture dependent kernels, move cell-sources reference to this area. as other hardware-specific kernels are retired, we can put 'em here. (xbox-sources, mips-sources, etc.)

1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.65 2012/06/18 22:40:15 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Contributor">
12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
22 </author>
23 <author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
25 </author>
26 <author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
28 </author>
29 <author title="Editor">
30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31 </author>
32 <author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
34 </author>
35
36 <abstract>
37 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
38 provides through Portage.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
42 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
43 <license/>
44
45 <version>7</version>
46 <date>2012-12-31</date>
47
48 <chapter>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <section>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
55 Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
56 possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
57 you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
58 I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
59 patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
60 sources we make available to you.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </section>
65 </chapter>
66
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
69 <section>
70 <title>genkernel</title>
71 <body>
72
73 <p>
74 <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
75 hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
76 for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
81 Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 <section>
87 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
92 <c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 3.x, lightly patched to fix
93 security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
94 uncommon system architectures.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
99 kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
100 can count on the expertise of popular kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman,
101 maintainer of udev and responsible for the USB and PCI subsystems of the
102 official Linux kernel.
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 </section>
107 <section>
108 <title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
109 <body>
110
111 <p>
112 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
113 our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
114 subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
115 link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
116 link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
117 stability/security-enhancements. Check
118 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
119 </p>
120
121 <impo>
122 This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
123 <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
124 </impo>
125
126 </body>
127 </section>
128 <section>
129 <title>ck-sources</title>
130 <body>
131
132 <p>
133 <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
134 designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
135 for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
136 different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
137 when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
138 <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section>
144 <title>git-sources</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
149 development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
150 kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
151 link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
152 (Linux Kernel Mailing List).
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </section>
157 <section>
158 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
159 <body>
160
161 <p>
162 <c>mips-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched
163 to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for
164 hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and
165 below.
166 </p>
167
168 </body>
169 </section>
170 </chapter>
171
172 <chapter>
173 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
174 <section>
175 <body>
176
177 <p>
178 Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
179 <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
180 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
181 kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
182 supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>pf-sources</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
193 patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
194 <c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
195 the <uri
196 link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
197 <uri
198 link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
199 </p>
200
201 </body>
202 </section>
203 <section>
204 <title>openvz-sources</title>
205 <body>
206
207 <p>
208 OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
209 isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
210 single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
211 applications do not conflict. For more information, see
212 <uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
213 </p>
214
215 </body>
216 </section>
217 <section>
218 <title>tuxonice-sources</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
223 both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
224 link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
225 implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
226 <e>suspend2</e>.
227 </p>
228
229 <p>
230 This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
231 to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
232 </p>
233
234 </body>
235 </section>
236 <section>
237 <title>usermode-sources</title>
238 <body>
239
240 <p>
241 <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
242 kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
243 to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
244 For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
245 scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
250 <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>vanilla-sources</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
261 users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
262 released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
263 these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
264 unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
265 instead.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.6 and 3.x.
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </section>
274 </chapter>
275
276 <chapter>
277 <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
278 <section>
279 <title>aa-sources</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
284 The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
285 was removed as it went out of date.
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 <section>
291 <title>alpha-sources</title>
292 <body>
293
294 <p>
295 <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
296 compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
297 and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
298 with no need for extra patches.
299 </p>
300
301 </body>
302 </section>
303 <section>
304 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
305 <body>
306
307 <p>
308 <c>cell-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel designed to run on the Sony PlayStation 3
309 game console.
310 </p>
311
312 </body>
313 </section>
314 <section>
315 <title>development-sources</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 <c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
320 be found under the <c>vanilla-sources</c> package.
321 </p>
322
323 </body>
324 </section>
325 <section>
326 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
327 <body>
328
329 <p>
330 <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>, a 2.6 kernel patched with bug, security and
331 stability fixes, can now be found under the <c>gentoo-sources</c> package.
332 </p>
333
334 </body>
335 </section>
336 <section>
337 <title>grsec-sources</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
342 grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
343 other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
344 included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
345 </p>
346
347 </body>
348 </section>
349 <section>
350 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
355 package.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section>
361 <title>hppa-sources</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 <c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
366 compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
367 and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
368 with no need for extra patches.
369 </p>
370
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>mm-sources</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 The <c>mm-sources</c> were based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contained
379 Andrew Morton's patch set. They includde the experimental and bleeding-edge
380 features that were going to be included in the official kernel (or that were
381 going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They were known to be
382 always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
383 other; kernel hackers used them as a testing ground for highly experimental new
384 stuff.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </section>
389 <section>
390 <title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
391 <body>
392
393 <p>
394 The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
395 <c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
396 </p>
397
398 </body>
399 </section>
400 <section>
401 <title>rsbac-sources</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 <c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
406 Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
407 been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
408 additional security features.
409 </p>
410
411 </body>
412 </section>
413 <section>
414 <title>selinux-sources</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
419 has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
420 functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
421 </p>
422
423 </body>
424 </section>
425 <section>
426 <title>sh-sources</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 <c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
431 compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
432 and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
433 with no need for extra patches.
434 </p>
435
436 </body>
437 </section>
438 <section>
439 <title>sparc-sources</title>
440 <body>
441
442 <p>
443 <c>sparc-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
444 compatibility for the SPARC architecture. These patches have been developed
445 and included in the mainline kernel. SPARC users can now run any recent kernel
446 with no need for extra patches.
447 </p>
448
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 <section>
452 <title>uclinux-sources</title>
453 <body>
454
455 <p>
456 The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
457 devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
458 security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
459 longer in the tree.
460 </p>
461
462 </body>
463 </section>
464 <section>
465 <title>win4lin-sources</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 <c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
470 that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
471 at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
472 </p>
473
474 </body>
475 </section>
476 <section>
477 <title>xen-sources</title>
478 <body>
479
480 <p>
481 <c>xen-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel that allowed running multiple
482 operating systems on a single physical system. You can create virtual
483 environments in which one or more guest operating systems run on a <uri
484 link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host operating system.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 The <c>xen-sources</c> patches were incorporated into the mainline Linux kernel
489 as of version 3.0.
490 </p>
491
492 <p>
493 For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
494 link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
495 </p>
496
497 </body>
498 </section>
499
500 <section>
501 <title>zen-sources</title>
502 <body>
503
504 <p>
505 <c>zen-sources</c> was designed for desktop systems. It included code not found
506 in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel had patches that added new features,
507 supported additional hardware, and contained various tweaks for desktops.
508 </p>
509
510 </body>
511 </section>
512 </chapter>
513 </guide>

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