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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 cam 1.4 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-sparc-faq.xml,v 1.3 2004/07/03 09:16:49 swift Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.2
4 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 neysx 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-sparc-faq.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux/SPARC Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7    
8     <author title="SPARC Developer">
9 neysx 1.2 <mail link="weeve@gentoo.org">Jason Wever</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13 neysx 1.2 This FAQ is designed to help answer the most commonly asked questions about
14     Gentoo Linux/SPARC and Linux on SPARC architecture. Feel free to send
15     revisions and corrections to the sparc team or the doc team.
16 swift 1.1 </abstract>
17 neysx 1.2
18 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
20     <license/>
21 cam 1.4 <version>1.3</version>
22     <date>2005-01-22</date>
23 swift 1.1
24     <chapter>
25     <title>Documentation Notes</title>
26     <section>
27     <body>
28    
29     <p>
30     These are some notes to elaborate on acronyms and terms used in this document.
31     </p>
32    
33     <p>
34 neysx 1.2 When mentioning <c>SPARC</c> and <c>SPARC64</c>, this refers to the type of
35     <c>sun4x</c> system. SPARC represents the 32 bit systems using the
36     <c>sun4c</c>, <c>sun4d</c> and <c>sun4m</c> architectures (i.e. SPARCstations).
37     SPARC64 represents the <c>sun4u</c> architecture seen in the UltraSPARC series
38     of systems (Ultras, Blades, SunFires, etc).
39 swift 1.1 </p>
40    
41     <p>
42 neysx 1.2 Acronyms: <c>OBP</c> = OpenBoot PROM, <c>SS</c> = SPARCstation.
43 swift 1.1 </p>
44    
45     </body>
46     </section>
47     </chapter>
48    
49     <chapter>
50     <title>Installation</title>
51     <section>
52     <title>How do I install/use my SPARC over a serial console?</title>
53     <body>
54    
55     <p>
56 neysx 1.2 First, make sure you do not have a keyboard and monitor plugged in. OBP will
57     use the monitor for output by default if either are plugged in. You will need a
58     null modem cable or a regular serial cable with a null modem adapter to be able
59     to view output.
60 swift 1.1 </p>
61    
62     <p>
63 neysx 1.2 Standard serial port settings:
64 swift 1.1 </p>
65    
66     <ul>
67 neysx 1.2 <li>9600 baud</li>
68     <li>8 data bits</li>
69     <li>None for parity</li>
70     <li>1 stop bits</li>
71 swift 1.1 </ul>
72    
73     <p>
74 neysx 1.2 Below is a list of commonly used programs for viewing a serial console. Check
75 swift 1.1 to see if your serial console application has the ability to send a break, as
76 neysx 1.2 it can be very useful on a SPARC. The break signal on a serial console is the
77     equivalent to issuing the Stop+A command on the keyboard.
78 swift 1.1 </p>
79    
80     <table>
81 neysx 1.2 <tr><th>Linux</th><th>Windows</th></tr>
82     <tr><ti>Minicom</ti><ti>Hyperterm</ti></tr>
83     <tr><ti>Kermit</ti><ti>TeraTerm Pro</ti></tr>
84     <tr><ti>Console</ti></tr>
85     <tr><ti>Seyon</ti></tr>
86 swift 1.1 </table>
87    
88     </body>
89     </section>
90     <section>
91     <title>How do I network boot my SPARC system for installation?</title>
92     <body>
93    
94     <p>
95 neysx 1.2 Currently, Gentoo has experimental network boot/tftpboot images available on a
96     local Gentoo mirror in experimental/sparc/tftpboot. Get the appropriate image
97     for your SPARC computer and then proceed to the Netboot HOWTO for further
98     instructions.
99 swift 1.1 </p>
100 neysx 1.2
101 swift 1.1 </body>
102     </section>
103     <section>
104     <title>I have a CRT/LCD monitor attached to my SPARC that selects a resolution
105 neysx 1.2 my monitor can't handle when the kernel boots. How do I get a visible and/or
106 swift 1.1 non-distorted display on my monitor?</title>
107     <body>
108    
109     <p>
110 neysx 1.2 This problem is a result of the framebuffer support the Linux kernel loads at
111     boot time, and the modelines available on SPARC systems. Here we will assume
112     your monitor and video card will agree on a resolution of 1024 by 768 at a
113     refresh rate of 60 Hz. In OBP, you can set the resolution by adjusting the
114     setting for <c>output-device</c>. To view the current setting, use the
115     command:
116 swift 1.1 </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="View current settings">
119     ok <i>printenv output-device</i>
120    
121     <comment>&lt;output-device&gt; &lt;screen&gt; &lt;screen&gt;</comment>
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Now, to set this so it will start the display using the above mentioned
126 neysx 1.2 resolution, we will use the <c>setenv</c> command as follows:
127 swift 1.1 </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Setting display">
130     ok <i>setenv output-device screen:r1024x768x60</i>
131    
132     output-device = screen:r1024x768x60
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136 neysx 1.2 In order for this to take effect, you will need to reset the machine:
137 swift 1.1 </p>
138    
139     <pre caption="Resetting the machine">
140     ok <i>reset</i>
141     </pre>
142    
143     <p>
144     Additionally, for users using the onboard video card based on the ATI Mach64
145 neysx 1.2 chipset (Ultra 5/10 and Blade 100/150), you will want to append the following
146     to your kernel boot options:
147 swift 1.1 </p>
148    
149 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Appending a kernel boot option">
150 swift 1.1 video=atyfb:1024x768@60
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154 neysx 1.2 If you are booting from SILO, you can append the above string onto the end of a
155     given boot image. The following example would be if you were booting from the
156     LiveCD.
157 swift 1.1 </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Booting a Gentoo LiveCD">
160     boot: <i>gentoo video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
161     </pre>
162    
163     <p>
164 neysx 1.2 If you were booting from the network, you would append the string onto the end
165     of the boot net command in OBP as illustrated below:
166 swift 1.1 </p>
167    
168     <pre caption="Booting from the net">
169     ok <i>boot net video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
170     </pre>
171    
172     </body>
173     </section>
174     <section>
175     <title>I'm new to SPARC and am not sure what kernel options to use,
176     HELP!</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180     Most of the time, the default kernel options will be acceptable for hardware
181 neysx 1.2 support. You will need to make sure that <c>devfs</c> and <c>virtual memory
182     filesystem support</c> is enabled in the kernel as instructed in the <uri
183     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbook</uri>.
184 swift 1.1 </p>
185    
186     <p>
187 neysx 1.2 Additionally, Gentoo/SPARC developer Ciaran McCreesh maintains a collection of
188     kernel configuration files for various SPARC systems at
189     <uri>http://dev.gentoo.org/~ciaranm/configs/kernel/</uri>. Feel free to submit
190     kernel configuration files for any SPARC systems and/or kernel versions not
191     currently avaiable to <mail
192     link="ciaranm@gentoo.org">ciaranm@gentoo.org</mail>.
193 swift 1.1 </p>
194    
195     </body>
196     </section>
197     <section>
198     <title>How do I dual boot Gentoo Linux/SPARC with Solaris?</title>
199     <body>
200    
201     <p>
202 neysx 1.2 Dual booting Gentoo Linux/SPARC and Solaris can be done one of two ways. The
203     two ways are: having both Gentoo Linux/SPARC and Solaris on the same drive, or
204     having them on separate drives. Below are example SILO configurations for each
205     scenario. In the example configs, the following things are assumed:
206 swift 1.1 </p>
207    
208     <p>
209 neysx 1.2 Single Drive Setup:
210 swift 1.1 </p>
211    
212     <ul>
213 neysx 1.2 <li>Boot drive is SCSI ID 0</li>
214     <li>Gentoo boots from partition 1</li>
215     <li>Solaris boots from parition 5</li>
216 swift 1.1 </ul>
217    
218     <p>
219 neysx 1.2 Separate Drive Setup:
220 swift 1.1 </p>
221    
222     <ul>
223 neysx 1.2 <li>Second drive is SCSI ID 1</li>
224     <li>Gentoo is on SCSI ID 0</li>
225     <li>Solaris is on SCSI ID 1</li>
226     <li>boot-device in OBP is SCSI ID 0</li>
227 swift 1.1 </ul>
228    
229    
230     <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for a single drive installation">
231     <comment># Generic config options</comment>
232     partition = 1
233     timeout = 50
234    
235     <comment># Gentoo Linux/SPARC options</comment>
236     image = /boot/vmlinux
237 neysx 1.2 label = linux
238     root=/dev/sda4
239 swift 1.1
240     <comment># Solaris options</comment>
241     other=5
242     label = Solaris
243     </pre>
244    
245     <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for separate disk installation">
246     <comment># Generic config options</comment>
247     parition = 1
248     timeout = 50
249    
250     <comment># Gentoo Linux/SPARC options</comment>
251     image = /boot/vmlinux
252 neysx 1.2 label = linux
253     root=/dev/sda4
254 swift 1.1
255     <comment># Solaris options</comment>
256     other = /sbus/espdma/esp/sd@1,0;1
257 neysx 1.2 label = solaris
258 swift 1.1 </pre>
259    
260     </body>
261     </section>
262     <section>
263     <title>I just booted my SPARCstation after installing Gentoo but it won't boot.
264     Why isn't it booting?</title>
265     <body>
266    
267     <p>
268     One possibility has to do with the way the that the SCSI IDs are assigned.
269 neysx 1.2 Gentoo/SPARC developer Keith Wesolowski provides us with the following:
270 swift 1.1 </p>
271    
272     <p>
273 neysx 1.2 Linux, normally, orders devices by SCSI ID. The lowest-numbered disk is
274     <c>sda</c>, the next-lowest is <c>sdb</c>, and so on. Note that <c>devfs</c>
275     allows you to specify devices by SCSI ID, so that adding a new device doesn't
276     cause your existing devices to be renamed, unless of course you use the
277     compatibility names. There are additional ways to solve this.
278 swift 1.1 </p>
279    
280     <p>
281 neysx 1.2 The OBP in most or all sun4c and sun4m systems aliases "disk" to the device
282     with SCSI ID 3, and "disk0" through "disk3" to the device with = the
283     corresponding SCSI ID, if it happens to be a disk rather than a tape, CDROM,
284     etc.
285 swift 1.1 </p>
286    
287     <p>
288 neysx 1.2 In the desktop systems of this era that support two SCA disks (the Aurora
289     chassis systems), the lower slot is assigned SCSI ID 3, and the upper slot is
290     assigned SCSI ID 1.
291 swift 1.1 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294 neysx 1.2 If you like, you can change the PROM alias "disk" to match that of "disk1" so
295     that the <c>boot disk</c> command causes the system to boot from the same
296     device Linux calls <c>sda</c>. This feels more consistent and normal,
297     especially for users with a PC background. Alternatively, you can simply place
298     the filesystem containing <path>/boot</path> (which could be the root
299     filesystem or a separate boot filesystem) on device ID 3 (Linux <c>sdb</c>) and
300     boot from it, using a root filesystem on either <c>sda</c> or <c>sdb</c>, or in
301     fact any other disk attached to the system.
302 swift 1.1 </p>
303    
304     </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307    
308     <chapter>
309     <title>Hardware</title>
310     <section>
311     <title>Will Gentoo run on my SPARC?</title>
312 neysx 1.2 <body>
313 swift 1.1
314     <p>
315 neysx 1.2 It depends on the type of SPARC, but chances are yes. One exception seems to be
316     the SPARC based laptops from Tadpole, particularly the newer models. If you
317     have a working Tadpole on Gentoo/SPARC, please contact us and let us know the
318     details on the model and anything special needed to get it to work.
319 swift 1.1 </p>
320 neysx 1.2
321 swift 1.1 <p>
322     Gentoo/SPARC Developer Todd Sunderlin keeps a partial list of the status of
323 neysx 1.2 SPARC64 systems under Gentoo at
324     <uri>http://dev.gentoo.org/~todd/sparc64.html</uri>. Email him with any
325     additions or possible changes to <mail
326     link="todd@gentoo.org">todd@gentoo.org</mail>.
327 swift 1.1 </p>
328    
329     <p>
330 neysx 1.2 To add details on your model SPARC64 to the list, email <mail
331     link="todd@gentoo.org">todd@gentoo.org</mail> with the pertinent information.
332     In general, support for the SPARC64 systems is good enough to allow some users
333     to run it successfully in production environments.
334 swift 1.1 </p>
335    
336     <p>
337 neysx 1.2 32-bit SPARC systems vary. Systems with the sun4m architecture have been
338     reported to work fine (SS4-SS20) including SMP configurations with the later
339     2.4 series kernels. sun4m systems using HyperSPARC or Ross processors in a SMP
340     configuration will have a lot of kernel related trouble. Additionally the
341     author hasn't heard of any user reports in regards to the JavaStations so its
342     status is unknown. sun4d based systems currently do not work in the 2.4 kernel
343     series, and sun4c has been unstable as well.
344 swift 1.1 </p>
345    
346     <p>
347     Often, the problems encountered in trying to run Gentoo on a 32-bit SPARC
348 neysx 1.2 system stem from the kernel. Rob Radez (not related to Gentoo) maintains a
349     webpage <uri>http://osinvestor.com/sparc/</uri> with the status of SPARC system
350     support for various versions of the Linux kernel. This can help indicate how
351     usable your SPARC system would be under SPARC/Linux.
352 swift 1.1 </p>
353 neysx 1.2
354 swift 1.1 </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357     <title>What additional hardware is supported under Gentoo/SPARC?</title>
358 neysx 1.2 <body>
359 swift 1.1
360     <p>
361     For a list of additionally supported Sun hardware, consult the following list
362 neysx 1.2 from the UltraLinux homepage -
363     <uri>http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_2.</uri>
364 swift 1.1 </p>
365    
366     <p>
367     A partial list of Sun devices which do NOT currently have support under
368     Gentoo/SPARC or SPARC/Linux in general are:
369     </p>
370    
371     <ul>
372     <li>SunPCI cards</li>
373     <li>SBUS or PCI PCMCIA controllers</li>
374     <li>Smart card readers on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
375     <li>Floppy drive on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
376     </ul>
377    
378     <p>
379 neysx 1.2 Also, Gentoo/SPARC developer Sven Blumenstein keeps a list of PC hardware that
380     has been tested with the PCI based SPARC64 systems at
381     <uri>http://dev.gentoo.org/~bazik/hw.php</uri>. Feel free to add your results
382     at testing PC or non-Sun hardware to the list by emailing <mail
383     link="bazik@gentoo.org">bazik@gentoo.org</mail> with the information on the
384     hardware as displayed in the existing hardware list.
385 swift 1.1 </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389     <section>
390 neysx 1.2 <title>So you keep talking about sun4c/sun4d/sun4m/sun4u. How do I
391     know which one I have?</title>
392 swift 1.1 <body>
393    
394 neysx 1.2 <p>
395     The UltraLinux FAQ has the answer at
396     <uri>http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_1</uri>.
397 swift 1.1 </p>
398    
399     </body>
400     </section>
401     </chapter>
402    
403     <chapter>
404     <title>Applications</title>
405     <section>
406     <title>
407     How do I get XFree86 to find a usable modeline on my Ultra 5/10 or Blade
408     100/150?
409     </title>
410     <body>
411 neysx 1.2
412 swift 1.1 <p>
413     The ATI Framebuffer normally expects a PC's BIOS to set the Reference Clock
414 neysx 1.2 speed for the video card. However, on non-x86 architectures, this doesn't
415     happen. So what needs to be done is to set the Reference Clock speed in the
416     XF86Config file.
417 swift 1.1 </p>
418    
419     <p>
420     In the "Device" section of your XF86Config file, you will want to add a line
421 neysx 1.2 similar to the following:
422 swift 1.1 </p>
423    
424     <pre caption="Add to XF86Config">
425     Option "reference_clock" "28.636 MHz"
426     </pre>
427    
428     <p>
429 neysx 1.2 The following URLs contain more information on how to set the reference clock:
430 swift 1.3 <uri>http://www.xfree86.org/~dawes/4.3.0/ati5.html#26</uri>. If you have issues
431     you might want to try without a similar setting first.
432 swift 1.1 </p>
433    
434     </body>
435     </section>
436     <section>
437     <title>How come package foo is masked on Sparc?</title>
438 neysx 1.2 <body>
439 swift 1.1
440 neysx 1.2 <p>
441     Chances are this is due to the fact that none of the Gentoo/SPARC developers
442     have gotten around to testing this yet, and/or the package is currently marked
443     with the <c>~sparc</c> keyword (meaning it's in a testing phase).
444 swift 1.1 </p>
445    
446     <p>
447     If you still want to install the package, you can follow the instructions from
448 neysx 1.2 the at <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum.php?t=33534">Portage
449     Masked Package FAQ</uri>.
450 swift 1.1 </p>
451    
452     <note>
453     The FAQ mentions the sparc64 keyword, which is invalid.
454     </note>
455    
456     </body>
457     </section>
458     <section>
459     <title>How can I help get package foo marked stable?</title>
460     <body>
461 neysx 1.2
462 swift 1.1 <p>
463     If you want to help ensure a package gets marked stable in a timely fashion,
464     particularly if it's an application with a small userbase (i.e.
465 neysx 1.2 net-im/bitlbee), install the package and test to make sure it works. If it
466     appears to be working well, feel free to file a bug at
467     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and assign it to the Gentoo/SPARC team.
468     </p>
469    
470 swift 1.1 </body>
471     </section>
472     <section>
473 cam 1.4 <title>I tried to emerge a package, but emerge failed complaining that a
474     dependency is masked. How can I fix this?</title>
475 swift 1.1 <body>
476 neysx 1.2
477 swift 1.1 <p>
478 neysx 1.2 This is a bug. Please file a bug report at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>
479     for the Gentoo/SPARC team indicating what package you tried to emerge, the
480 cam 1.4 error message emerge gave you, and the output of <c>emerge --info</c>.
481 neysx 1.2 </p>
482    
483 swift 1.1 </body>
484     </section>
485     </chapter>
486    
487     <chapter>
488 neysx 1.2 <title>Miscellaneous</title>
489 swift 1.1 <section>
490     <title>I'm interested in becoming more involved with Gentoo/SPARC. How do I go about
491     doing that?</title>
492     <body>
493    
494     <p>
495 neysx 1.2 The best way is to join the <c>#gentoo-sparc</c> IRC channel on Freenode IRC
496     network <c>irc.freenode.net</c>. This is where all of the developers hang out
497     and talk SPARC (amongst other things). Short of email, this is the best way to
498     get our attention, and blame seemant! :)
499 swift 1.1 </p>
500 neysx 1.2
501 swift 1.1 <p>
502 neysx 1.2 Also, many users and developers make use of the <uri
503     link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum.php?f=27">Gentoo/SPARC forum</uri>.
504     This is a good place to ask questions and see what problems have come up
505     before, as well as talk shop about Gentoo/SPARC.
506 swift 1.1 </p>
507 neysx 1.2
508 swift 1.1 <p>
509 neysx 1.2 Additionally, you can view the bugs for Gentoo/SPARC via the <uri
510     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri>. The bugs will be assigned
511     or CC'd to sparc@gentoo.org.
512 swift 1.1 </p>
513 neysx 1.2
514 swift 1.1 </body>
515     </section>
516     <section>
517     <title>Are there any currently known bugs/issues with software packages on
518     Gentoo/SPARC?</title>
519     <body>
520 neysx 1.2
521 swift 1.1 <p>
522     A list of problematic packages can be found at
523     <uri>http://dev.gentoo.org/~weeve/problems.html</uri>
524     </p>
525 neysx 1.2
526 swift 1.1 </body>
527     </section>
528     </chapter>
529    
530     <chapter>
531 neysx 1.2 <title>Additional Resources</title>
532     <section>
533     <body>
534 swift 1.1
535     <p>
536 neysx 1.2 Here is some info on the Gentoo/SPARC project itself:
537 swift 1.1 </p>
538 neysx 1.2
539     <ul>
540     <li><uri link="http://sparc.gentoo.org">Gentoo/SPARC Project Page</uri></li>
541     <li>#gentoo-sparc - Official IRC channel on irc.freenode.net</li>
542     <li>
543     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum.php?f=27">Gentoo/SPARC
544     Forum</uri>
545     </li>
546     <li><mail>sparc@gentoo.org</mail> - Gentoo/SPARC team email address</li>
547     </ul>
548    
549 swift 1.1 <p>
550 neysx 1.2 Here are links to additional information about SPARC/Linux or SPARCs in general:
551 swift 1.1 </p>
552 neysx 1.2
553     <ul>
554     <li>
555     <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org">UltraLinux Homepage</uri> - Homepage
556     of the SPARC/Linux port
557     </li>
558     <li>
559     <uri link="http://sunsolve.sun.com">Sunsolve</uri> - Great resource for Sun
560     hardware documentation
561     </li>
562     <li>
563     <uri>http://docs.sun.com</uri> - Additional hardware and software
564     information for SPARC systems, including instructions for flashing OBP
565     </li>
566     <li>
567     <uri link="http://www.obsolyte.com">Obsolyte</uri> - Information on older
568     SPARC systems and links to a lot of other great SPARC related sites.
569     </li>
570     <li>
571     <uri
572     link="http://040.digital-bless.com/texts/Unofficial_Sun_Blade_100_FAQ.htm">Unofficial
573     Sun Blade 100 FAQ</uri> - Answers a lot of hardware related questions on
574     the Blade 100
575     </li>
576     <li>
577     <uri link="http://docs.sun.com/db/coll/216.2">OBP Reference Guide</uri> -
578     Sun's guide to the OpenBoot PROM.
579     </li>
580     </ul>
581 swift 1.1
582     </body>
583     </section>
584     </chapter>
585     </guide>

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