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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-sparc-faq.xml,v 1.17 2009/12/14 21:33:15 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux/SPARC Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7
8 <author title="SPARC Developer">
9 <mail link="weeve"/>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This FAQ is designed to help answer the most commonly asked questions about
14 Gentoo/SPARC and Linux on SPARC architecture. Feel free to send revisions and
15 corrections to the Gentoo/SPARC team or the doc team.
16 </abstract>
17
18 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
20 <license/>
21
22 <version>1.11</version>
23 <date>2009-12-29</date>
24
25 <faqindex>
26 <title>Questions</title>
27 <section>
28 <title>Documentation Notes</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <p>
32 These are some notes to elaborate on acronyms and terms used in this document.
33 </p>
34
35 <p>
36 When mentioning <c>SPARC</c>, this refers to the type of <c>sun4x</c> system.
37 SPARC represents the <c>sun4u</c> architecture seen in the UltraSPARC series of
38 systems (Ultras, Blades, SunFires, etc). Older 32-bit systems are no longer
39 supported by the Gentoo/SPARC team.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Acronyms: <c>OBP</c> = OpenBoot PROM, <c>SS</c> = SPARCstation.
44 </p>
45
46 </body>
47 </section>
48 </faqindex>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Installation</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>How do I install/use my SPARC over a serial console?</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 First, make sure you do not have a keyboard and monitor plugged in. OBP will
58 use the monitor for output by default if either are plugged in. You will need a
59 null modem cable or a regular serial cable with a null modem adapter to be able
60 to view output.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 Standard serial port settings:
65 </p>
66
67 <ul>
68 <li>9600 baud</li>
69 <li>8 data bits</li>
70 <li>None for parity</li>
71 <li>1 stop bits</li>
72 </ul>
73
74 <p>
75 Below is a list of commonly used programs for viewing a serial console. Check
76 to see if your serial console application has the ability to send a break, as
77 it can be very useful on a SPARC. The break signal on a serial console is the
78 equivalent to issuing the Stop+A command on the keyboard.
79 </p>
80
81 <table>
82 <tr>
83 <th>Linux</th>
84 <th>Windows</th>
85 </tr>
86 <tr>
87 <ti>Minicom</ti>
88 <ti>Hyperterm</ti>
89 </tr>
90 <tr>
91 <ti>Kermit</ti>
92 <ti>TeraTerm Pro</ti>
93 </tr>
94 <tr>
95 <ti>Console</ti>
96 <ti></ti>
97 </tr>
98 <tr>
99 <ti>Seyon</ti>
100 <ti></ti>
101 </tr>
102 </table>
103
104 </body>
105 </section>
106
107 <section>
108 <title>I have a CRT/LCD monitor attached to my SPARC that selects a resolution
109 my monitor can't handle when the kernel boots. How do I get a visible and/or
110 non-distorted display on my monitor?</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <p>
114 This problem is a result of the framebuffer support the Linux kernel loads at
115 boot time, and the modelines available on SPARC systems. Here we will assume
116 your monitor and video card will agree on a resolution of 1024 by 768 at a
117 refresh rate of 60 Hz. In OBP, you can set the resolution by adjusting the
118 setting for <c>output-device</c>. To view the current setting, use the command:
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption="View current settings">
122 ok <i>printenv output-device</i>
123
124 <comment>&lt;output-device&gt; &lt;screen&gt; &lt;screen&gt;</comment>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 Now, to set this so it will start the display using the above mentioned
129 resolution, we will use the <c>setenv</c> command as follows:
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="Setting display">
133 ok <i>setenv output-device screen:r1024x768x60</i>
134
135 output-device = screen:r1024x768x60
136 </pre>
137
138 <p>
139 In order for this to take effect, you will need to reset the machine:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Resetting the machine">
143 ok <i>reset</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 Additionally, for users using the onboard video card based on the ATI Mach64
148 chipset (Ultra 5/10 and Blade 100/150), you will want to append the following
149 to your kernel boot options:
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Appending a kernel boot option">
153 video=atyfb:1024x768@60
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 If you are booting from SILO, you can append the above string onto the end of a
158 given boot image. The following example would be if you were booting from the
159 LiveCD.
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Booting a Gentoo LiveCD">
163 boot: <i>gentoo video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
164 </pre>
165
166 <p>
167 If you were booting from the network, you would append the string onto the end
168 of the boot net command in OBP as illustrated below:
169 </p>
170
171 <pre caption="Booting from the net">
172 ok <i>boot net video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
173 </pre>
174
175 </body>
176 </section>
177 <section>
178 <title>I'm new to SPARC and am not sure what kernel options to use,
179 HELP!</title>
180 <body>
181
182 <p>
183 Most of the time, the default kernel options will be acceptable for hardware
184 support. You will need to make sure that <c>virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
185 filesystem</c> support is enabled in the kernel as instructed in the <uri
186 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml">Installation Handbook</uri>.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </section>
191 <section>
192 <title>How do I dual boot Gentoo Linux/SPARC with Solaris?</title>
193 <body>
194
195 <p>
196 Dual booting Gentoo/SPARC and Solaris can be done one of two ways. The two ways
197 are: having both Gentoo/SPARC and Solaris on the same drive, or having them on
198 separate drives. Below are example SILO configurations for each scenario. In the
199 example configs, the following things are assumed:
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 Single Drive Setup:
204 </p>
205
206 <ul>
207 <li>Boot drive is SCSI ID 0</li>
208 <li>Gentoo boots from partition 1</li>
209 <li>Solaris boots from partition 5</li>
210 </ul>
211
212 <p>
213 Separate Drive Setup:
214 </p>
215
216 <ul>
217 <li>Second drive is SCSI ID 1</li>
218 <li>Gentoo is on SCSI ID 0</li>
219 <li>Solaris is on SCSI ID 1</li>
220 <li>boot-device in OBP is SCSI ID 0</li>
221 </ul>
222
223
224 <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for a single drive installation">
225 <comment># Generic config options</comment>
226 partition = 1
227 timeout = 50
228
229 <comment># Gentoo/SPARC options</comment>
230 image = /boot/vmlinux
231 label = linux
232 root=/dev/sda4
233
234 <comment># Solaris options</comment>
235 other=5
236 label = Solaris
237 </pre>
238
239 <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for separate disk installation">
240 <comment># Generic config options</comment>
241 parition = 1
242 timeout = 50
243
244 <comment># Gentoo/SPARC options</comment>
245 image = /boot/vmlinux
246 label = linux
247 root=/dev/sda4
248
249 <comment># Solaris options</comment>
250 other = /sbus/espdma/esp/sd@1,0;1
251 label = solaris
252 </pre>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 </chapter>
257
258 <chapter>
259 <title>Hardware</title>
260 <section>
261 <title>Will Gentoo run on my SPARC?</title>
262 <body>
263
264 <p>
265 It depends on the type of SPARC, but chances are yes. One exception seems to be
266 the SPARC based laptops from Tadpole, particularly the newer models. If you
267 have a working Tadpole on Gentoo/SPARC, please contact us and let us know the
268 details on the model and anything special needed to get it to work.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 The Gentoo/SPARC team maintains a <uri
273 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/sunhw.xml">hardware compatibility list</uri> for
274 SPARC64 systems. In general, support for SPARC64 systems is good enough to
275 allow some users to run it successfully in production environments.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </section>
280 <section>
281 <title>What additional hardware is supported under Gentoo/SPARC?</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 For a list of additionally supported Sun hardware, consult the following list
286 from the <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_2.">UltraLinux
287 homepage</uri>.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 A partial list of Sun devices which do NOT currently have support under
292 Gentoo/SPARC or SPARC/Linux in general are:
293 </p>
294
295 <ul>
296 <li>SunPCI cards</li>
297 <li>SBUS or PCI PCMCIA controllers</li>
298 <li>Smart card readers on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
299 <li>Floppy drive on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
300 </ul>
301
302 <p>
303 Also, the Gentoo/SPARC team maintains a <uri
304 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/hwlist.xml">list of non-Sun PCI hardware that has
305 been tested on Gentoo/SPARC</uri>. To submit additions to the list, email
306 <mail>sparc@gentoo.org</mail> with the information on the hardware as displayed
307 in the existing hardware list.
308 </p>
309
310 </body>
311 </section>
312 <section>
313 <title>How do I know which SPARC I have?</title>
314 <body>
315
316 <p>
317 The <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_1">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
318 has the answer.
319 </p>
320
321 </body>
322 </section>
323 <section>
324 <title>My box has more than one Sun Ethernet device. Why do they all have the
325 same MAC address and how do I fix it?</title>
326 <body>
327
328 <p>
329 First, the reason they all they all have the same setting is due to a value in
330 OpenBoot PROM (OBP). The story goes that in times past, it was assumed that if a
331 host had multiple interfaces, the interfaces would not reside on the same
332 Ethernet and therefore having the MAC address unique to a machine rather than to
333 a NIC wouldn't be a problem. As time went on and different technologies
334 developed, the opposite was proven.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 As for fixing the issue, there are two ways to it; from OBP and from Linux. The
339 OBP variable <c>local-mac-address?</c> controls this behavior. The following
340 commands will help you to determine what <c>local-mac-address?</c> is set to:
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="View local-mac-address? setting from OBP">
344 ok <i>printenv local-mac-address?</i>
345 local-mac-address? = false
346 </pre>
347
348 <pre caption="View local-mac-address? setting from Linux">
349 # <i>eeprom local-mac-address?</i>
350 local-mac-address?=false
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 As you'll notice from the samples above, <c>local-mac-address?</c> is set to
355 <b>false</b>. This will cause all interfaces on a SPARC to use the same MAC
356 address. To change this behavior, use either of the commands below (depending
357 on whether you do it from OBP or Linux):
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Set local-mac-address? from OBP">
361 ok <i>setenv local-mac-address?=true</i>
362 local-mac-address? = true
363 </pre>
364
365 <pre caption="Set local-mac-address? from Linux">
366 # <i>eeprom local-mac-address?=true</i>
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 Note that you may need to reboot to see the changes take affect.
371 </p>
372
373 </body>
374 </section>
375 <section>
376 <title>Is SPARC big-endian or little-endian?</title>
377 <body>
378
379 <p>
380 The version supported by Gentoo/SPARC (v9) is bi-endian. It uses big-endian
381 intructions, but can access data in little-endian byte-order, such as PCI
382 devices, which are little-endian by nature.
383 </p>
384
385 </body>
386 </section>
387 </chapter>
388
389 <chapter>
390 <title>Applications</title>
391 <section>
392 <title>
393 How do I get Xorg to find a usable modeline on my Ultra 5/10 or Blade 100/150?
394 </title>
395 <body>
396
397 <p>
398 The ATI Framebuffer normally expects a PC's BIOS to set the Reference Clock
399 speed for the video card. However, on non-x86 architectures, this doesn't
400 happen. So what needs to be done is to set the Reference Clock speed in the
401 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 In the "Device" section of your <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>, you will
406 want to add a line similar to the following:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Add to xorg.conf">
410 Option "reference_clock" "28.636 MHz"
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 Other common speeds are 14.318 MHz and 29.5 MHz. If you have issues you might
415 want to try without a similar setting first.
416 </p>
417
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 <section>
421 <title>How come package foo is masked on SPARC?</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 Chances are this is due to the fact that none of the Gentoo/SPARC developers
426 have gotten around to testing this yet, and/or the package is currently marked
427 with the <c>~sparc</c> keyword (meaning it's in a testing phase).
428 </p>
429
430 <p>
431 If you still want to install the package, you can follow the instructions from
432 the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml?part=3&amp;chap=3">Portage
433 Handbook</uri>.
434 </p>
435
436 </body>
437 </section>
438 <section>
439 <title>How can I help get package foo marked stable?</title>
440 <body>
441
442 <p>
443 If you want to help ensure a package gets marked stable in a timely fashion,
444 particularly if it's an application with a small userbase (i.e.
445 net-im/bitlbee), install the package and test to make sure it works. If it
446 appears to be working well, feel free to file a bug via the
447 <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri> and assign it to the
448 Gentoo/SPARC team.
449 </p>
450
451 </body>
452 </section>
453 <section>
454 <title>I tried to emerge a package, but emerge failed complaining that a
455 dependency is masked. How can I fix this?</title>
456 <body>
457
458 <p>
459 This is a bug. Please file a bug report via the <uri
460 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri> for the Gentoo/SPARC team
461 indicating what package you tried to emerge, the error message emerge gave you,
462 and the output of <c>emerge --info</c>.
463 </p>
464
465 </body>
466 </section>
467 <section>
468 <title>Why am I getting an error related to 32/64-bit when compiling a
469 kernel?</title>
470 <body>
471
472 <p>
473 The way SPARC/Linux handles the cross-compiler has changed with 2.6.25 (<uri
474 link="http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=commitdiff;h=54cd6ddec77b75e6926d73d263aec72255b24030">commit</uri>),
475 thus when building a recent kernel you'd get the following error message:
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="SPARC/Linux compile error message">
479 CHK include/linux/version.h
480 CHK include/linux/utsrelease.h
481 CC arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.s
482 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -m64 is not supported by this configuration
483 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -mlong-double-64 not allowed with -m64
484 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -mcmodel= is not supported on 32 bit systems
485 make[1]: *** [arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.s] Error 1
486 make: *** [prepare0] Error 2
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>
490 Because, for the moment (there's an <b>experimental</b> <uri
491 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/multilib.xml">multilib</uri> profile),
492 Gentoo/SPARC native compiler can't generate 64-bit code (that's what
493 sys-devel/kgcc64 is for).
494 </p>
495
496 <p>
497 What you need to do is to tell the SPARC/Linux Makefile what is your
498 cross-compiler's binary, by issuing the following commands:
499 </p>
500
501 <pre caption="Gentoo/SPARC kernel >=2.6.25 kernel compilation">
502 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
503 # <i>make CROSS_COMPILE=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-</i>
504 # <i>make CROSS_COMPILE=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu- image modules_install</i>
505 </pre>
506
507 </body>
508 </section>
509 </chapter>
510
511 <chapter>
512 <title>Miscellaneous</title>
513 <section>
514 <title>I'm interested in becoming more involved with Gentoo/SPARC. How do I go
515 about doing that?</title>
516 <body>
517
518 <p>
519 There are various ways to improve the project:
520 </p>
521
522 <ul>
523 <li>The best way is to become an <uri
524 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/at/index.xml">Arch Tester</uri>, and aid the
525 developers with package testing.
526 </li>
527 <li>File bug reports such as <uri
528 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~tcunha/reports/imlate-sparc.txt">stable, and
529 keyword</uri> requests.
530 </li>
531 <li>Join the <uri
532 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo-sparc">#gentoo-sparc</uri> IRC channel
533 on the FreeNode IRC network.
534 </li>
535 <li>Make use of the <uri
536 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum.php?f=27">Gentoo/SPARC forum</uri>.
537 </li>
538 <li>Propose solutions for Gentoo/SPARC related bugs via the <uri
539 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri>. The bugs will be
540 assigned, or CCed to sparc@gentoo.org.
541 </li>
542 </ul>
543
544 </body>
545 </section>
546 </chapter>
547
548 <chapter>
549 <title>Additional Resources</title>
550 <section>
551 <title>Where can I get more help or information about SPARC/Linux?</title>
552 <body>
553
554 <ul>
555 <li>
556 <uri link="http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/coll/216.2">OBP Reference
557 Guide</uri> - Sun's guide to the OpenBoot PROM
558 </li>
559 <li>
560 <uri link="http://www.obsolyte.com">Obsolyte</uri> - Information on older
561 SPARC systems and links to a lot of other great SPARC related sites
562 </li>
563 <li>
564 <uri link="http://docs.sun.com">Sun Microsystems Documentation</uri> -
565 Additional hardware and software information for SPARC systems, including
566 instructions for flashing OBP
567 </li>
568 <li>
569 <uri link="http://sunsolve.sun.com">Sunsolve</uri> - Great resource for Sun
570 hardware documentation
571 </li>
572 <li>
573 <uri link="http://www.sunstuff.org">Online Sun Information Archive</uri>
574 </li>
575 <li>
576 <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org">UltraLinux Homepage</uri> - Homepage
577 of the SPARC/Linux port
578 </li>
579 </ul>
580
581 </body>
582 </section>
583 </chapter>
584 </guide>

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