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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-sparc-faq.xml,v 1.18 2009/12/29 18:56:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux/SPARC Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7
8 <author title="SPARC Developer">
9 <mail link="weeve"/>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 This FAQ is designed to help answer the most commonly asked questions about
17 Gentoo/SPARC and Linux on SPARC architecture. Feel free to send revisions and
18 corrections to the Gentoo/SPARC team or the doc team.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 <license/>
24
25 <version>1.12</version>
26 <date>2010-03-02</date>
27
28 <faqindex>
29 <title>Questions</title>
30 <section>
31 <title>Documentation Notes</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 These are some notes to elaborate on acronyms and terms used in this document.
36 </p>
37
38 <p>
39 When mentioning <c>SPARC</c>, this refers to the type of <c>sun4x</c> system.
40 SPARC represents the <c>sun4u</c> architecture seen in the UltraSPARC series of
41 systems (Ultras, Blades, SunFires, etc). Older 32-bit systems are no longer
42 supported by the Gentoo/SPARC team.
43 </p>
44
45 <p>
46 Acronyms: <c>OBP</c> = OpenBoot PROM, <c>SS</c> = SPARCstation.
47 </p>
48
49 </body>
50 </section>
51 </faqindex>
52
53 <chapter>
54 <title>Installation</title>
55 <section>
56 <title>How do I install/use my SPARC over a serial console?</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 First, make sure you do not have a keyboard and monitor plugged in. OBP will
61 use the monitor for output by default if either are plugged in. You will need a
62 null modem cable or a regular serial cable with a null modem adapter to be able
63 to view output.
64 </p>
65
66 <p>
67 Standard serial port settings:
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>9600 baud</li>
72 <li>8 data bits</li>
73 <li>None for parity</li>
74 <li>1 stop bits</li>
75 </ul>
76
77 <p>
78 Below is a list of commonly used programs for viewing a serial console. Check
79 to see if your serial console application has the ability to send a break, as
80 it can be very useful on a SPARC. The break signal on a serial console is the
81 equivalent to issuing the Stop+A command on the keyboard.
82 </p>
83
84 <table>
85 <tr>
86 <th>Linux</th>
87 <th>Windows</th>
88 </tr>
89 <tr>
90 <ti>Minicom</ti>
91 <ti>Hyperterm</ti>
92 </tr>
93 <tr>
94 <ti>Kermit</ti>
95 <ti>TeraTerm Pro</ti>
96 </tr>
97 <tr>
98 <ti>Console</ti>
99 <ti></ti>
100 </tr>
101 <tr>
102 <ti>Seyon</ti>
103 <ti></ti>
104 </tr>
105 </table>
106
107 </body>
108 </section>
109
110 <section>
111 <title>I have a CRT/LCD monitor attached to my SPARC that selects a resolution
112 my monitor can't handle when the kernel boots. How do I get a visible and/or
113 non-distorted display on my monitor?</title>
114 <body>
115
116 <p>
117 This problem is a result of the framebuffer support the Linux kernel loads at
118 boot time, and the modelines available on SPARC systems. Here we will assume
119 your monitor and video card will agree on a resolution of 1024 by 768 at a
120 refresh rate of 60 Hz. In OBP, you can set the resolution by adjusting the
121 setting for <c>output-device</c>. To view the current setting, use the command:
122 </p>
123
124 <pre caption="View current settings">
125 ok <i>printenv output-device</i>
126
127 <comment>&lt;output-device&gt; &lt;screen&gt; &lt;screen&gt;</comment>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 Now, to set this so it will start the display using the above mentioned
132 resolution, we will use the <c>setenv</c> command as follows:
133 </p>
134
135 <pre caption="Setting display">
136 ok <i>setenv output-device screen:r1024x768x60</i>
137
138 output-device = screen:r1024x768x60
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 In order for this to take effect, you will need to reset the machine:
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="Resetting the machine">
146 ok <i>reset</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Additionally, for users using the onboard video card based on the ATI Mach64
151 chipset (Ultra 5/10 and Blade 100/150), you will want to append the following
152 to your kernel boot options:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Appending a kernel boot option">
156 video=atyfb:1024x768@60
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 If you are booting from SILO, you can append the above string onto the end of a
161 given boot image. The following example would be if you were booting from the
162 LiveCD.
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Booting a Gentoo LiveCD">
166 boot: <i>gentoo video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
167 </pre>
168
169 <p>
170 If you were booting from the network, you would append the string onto the end
171 of the boot net command in OBP as illustrated below:
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="Booting from the net">
175 ok <i>boot net video=atyfb:1024x768@60</i>
176 </pre>
177
178 </body>
179 </section>
180 <section>
181 <title>I'm new to SPARC and am not sure what kernel options to use,
182 HELP!</title>
183 <body>
184
185 <p>
186 Most of the time, the default kernel options will be acceptable for hardware
187 support. You will need to make sure that <c>virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
188 filesystem</c> support is enabled in the kernel as instructed in the <uri
189 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml">Installation Handbook</uri>.
190 </p>
191
192 </body>
193 </section>
194 <section>
195 <title>How do I dual boot Gentoo Linux/SPARC with Solaris?</title>
196 <body>
197
198 <p>
199 Dual booting Gentoo/SPARC and Solaris can be done one of two ways. The two ways
200 are: having both Gentoo/SPARC and Solaris on the same drive, or having them on
201 separate drives. Below are example SILO configurations for each scenario. In the
202 example configs, the following things are assumed:
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 Single Drive Setup:
207 </p>
208
209 <ul>
210 <li>Boot drive is SCSI ID 0</li>
211 <li>Gentoo boots from partition 1</li>
212 <li>Solaris boots from partition 5</li>
213 </ul>
214
215 <p>
216 Separate Drive Setup:
217 </p>
218
219 <ul>
220 <li>Second drive is SCSI ID 1</li>
221 <li>Gentoo is on SCSI ID 0</li>
222 <li>Solaris is on SCSI ID 1</li>
223 <li>boot-device in OBP is SCSI ID 0</li>
224 </ul>
225
226
227 <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for a single drive installation">
228 <comment># Generic config options</comment>
229 partition = 1
230 timeout = 50
231
232 <comment># Gentoo/SPARC options</comment>
233 image = /boot/vmlinux
234 label = linux
235 root=/dev/sda4
236
237 <comment># Solaris options</comment>
238 other=5
239 label = Solaris
240 </pre>
241
242 <pre caption="Sample silo.conf for separate disk installation">
243 <comment># Generic config options</comment>
244 parition = 1
245 timeout = 50
246
247 <comment># Gentoo/SPARC options</comment>
248 image = /boot/vmlinux
249 label = linux
250 root=/dev/sda4
251
252 <comment># Solaris options</comment>
253 other = /sbus/espdma/esp/sd@1,0;1
254 label = solaris
255 </pre>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 </chapter>
260
261 <chapter>
262 <title>Hardware</title>
263 <section>
264 <title>Will Gentoo run on my SPARC?</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 It depends on the type of SPARC, but chances are yes. One exception seems to be
269 the SPARC based laptops from Tadpole, particularly the newer models. If you
270 have a working Tadpole on Gentoo/SPARC, please contact us and let us know the
271 details on the model and anything special needed to get it to work.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 The Gentoo/SPARC team maintains a <uri
276 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/sunhw.xml">hardware compatibility list</uri> for
277 SPARC64 systems. In general, support for SPARC64 systems is good enough to
278 allow some users to run it successfully in production environments.
279 </p>
280
281 </body>
282 </section>
283 <section>
284 <title>What additional hardware is supported under Gentoo/SPARC?</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 For a list of additionally supported Sun hardware, consult the following list
289 from the <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_2.">UltraLinux
290 homepage</uri>.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 A partial list of Sun devices which do NOT currently have support under
295 Gentoo/SPARC or SPARC/Linux in general are:
296 </p>
297
298 <ul>
299 <li>SunPCI cards</li>
300 <li>SBUS or PCI PCMCIA controllers</li>
301 <li>Smart card readers on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
302 <li>Floppy drive on some Sun Blade workstations</li>
303 </ul>
304
305 <p>
306 Also, the Gentoo/SPARC team maintains a <uri
307 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/hwlist.xml">list of non-Sun PCI hardware that has
308 been tested on Gentoo/SPARC</uri>. To submit additions to the list, email
309 <mail>sparc@gentoo.org</mail> with the information on the hardware as displayed
310 in the existing hardware list.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section>
316 <title>How do I know which SPARC I have?</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 The <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html#q_2_1">UltraLinux FAQ</uri>
321 has the answer.
322 </p>
323
324 </body>
325 </section>
326 <section>
327 <title>My box has more than one Sun Ethernet device. Why do they all have the
328 same MAC address and how do I fix it?</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 First, the reason they all they all have the same setting is due to a value in
333 OpenBoot PROM (OBP). The story goes that in times past, it was assumed that if a
334 host had multiple interfaces, the interfaces would not reside on the same
335 Ethernet and therefore having the MAC address unique to a machine rather than to
336 a NIC wouldn't be a problem. As time went on and different technologies
337 developed, the opposite was proven.
338 </p>
339
340 <p>
341 As for fixing the issue, there are two ways to it; from OBP and from Linux. The
342 OBP variable <c>local-mac-address?</c> controls this behavior. The following
343 commands will help you to determine what <c>local-mac-address?</c> is set to:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="View local-mac-address? setting from OBP">
347 ok <i>printenv local-mac-address?</i>
348 local-mac-address? = false
349 </pre>
350
351 <pre caption="View local-mac-address? setting from Linux">
352 # <i>eeprom local-mac-address?</i>
353 local-mac-address?=false
354 </pre>
355
356 <p>
357 As you'll notice from the samples above, <c>local-mac-address?</c> is set to
358 <b>false</b>. This will cause all interfaces on a SPARC to use the same MAC
359 address. To change this behavior, use either of the commands below (depending
360 on whether you do it from OBP or Linux):
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="Set local-mac-address? from OBP">
364 ok <i>setenv local-mac-address?=true</i>
365 local-mac-address? = true
366 </pre>
367
368 <pre caption="Set local-mac-address? from Linux">
369 # <i>eeprom local-mac-address?=true</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 Note that you may need to reboot to see the changes take affect.
374 </p>
375
376 </body>
377 </section>
378 <section>
379 <title>Is SPARC big-endian or little-endian?</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 The version supported by Gentoo/SPARC (v9) is bi-endian. It uses big-endian
384 instructions, but can access data in little-endian byte-order, such as PCI
385 devices, which are little-endian by nature.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 </chapter>
391
392 <chapter>
393 <title>Applications</title>
394 <section>
395 <title>
396 How do I get Xorg to find a usable modeline on my Ultra 5/10 or Blade 100/150?
397 </title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 The ATI Framebuffer normally expects a PC's BIOS to set the Reference Clock
402 speed for the video card. However, on non-x86 architectures, this doesn't
403 happen. So what needs to be done is to set the Reference Clock speed in the
404 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
405 </p>
406
407 <p>
408 In the "Device" section of your <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>, you will
409 want to add a line similar to the following:
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="Add to xorg.conf">
413 Option "reference_clock" "28.636 MHz"
414 </pre>
415
416 <p>
417 Other common speeds are 14.318 MHz and 29.5 MHz. If you have issues you might
418 want to try without a similar setting first.
419 </p>
420
421 </body>
422 </section>
423 <section>
424 <title>How come package foo is masked on SPARC?</title>
425 <body>
426
427 <p>
428 Chances are this is due to the fact that none of the Gentoo/SPARC developers
429 have gotten around to testing this yet, and/or the package is currently marked
430 with the <c>~sparc</c> keyword (meaning it's in a testing phase).
431 </p>
432
433 <p>
434 If you still want to install the package, you can follow the instructions from
435 the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-sparc.xml?part=3&amp;chap=3">Portage
436 Handbook</uri>.
437 </p>
438
439 </body>
440 </section>
441 <section>
442 <title>How can I help get package foo marked stable?</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 If you want to help ensure a package gets marked stable in a timely fashion,
447 particularly if it's an application with a small userbase (i.e.
448 net-im/bitlbee), install the package and test to make sure it works. If it
449 appears to be working well, feel free to file a bug via the
450 <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri> and assign it to the
451 Gentoo/SPARC team.
452 </p>
453
454 </body>
455 </section>
456 <section>
457 <title>I tried to emerge a package, but emerge failed complaining that a
458 dependency is masked. How can I fix this?</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 This is a bug. Please file a bug report via the <uri
463 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri> for the Gentoo/SPARC team
464 indicating what package you tried to emerge, the error message emerge gave you,
465 and the output of <c>emerge --info</c>.
466 </p>
467
468 </body>
469 </section>
470 <section>
471 <title>Why am I getting an error related to 32/64-bit when compiling a
472 kernel?</title>
473 <body>
474
475 <p>
476 The way SPARC/Linux handles the cross-compiler has changed with 2.6.25 (<uri
477 link="http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=commitdiff;h=54cd6ddec77b75e6926d73d263aec72255b24030">commit</uri>),
478 thus when building a recent kernel you'd get the following error message:
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="SPARC/Linux compile error message">
482 CHK include/linux/version.h
483 CHK include/linux/utsrelease.h
484 CC arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.s
485 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -m64 is not supported by this configuration
486 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -mlong-double-64 not allowed with -m64
487 arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.c:1: error: -mcmodel= is not supported on 32 bit systems
488 make[1]: *** [arch/sparc64/kernel/asm-offsets.s] Error 1
489 make: *** [prepare0] Error 2
490 </pre>
491
492 <p>
493 Because, for the moment (there's an <b>experimental</b> <uri
494 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/multilib.xml">multilib</uri> profile),
495 Gentoo/SPARC native compiler can't generate 64-bit code (that's what
496 sys-devel/kgcc64 is for).
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 What you need to do is to tell the SPARC/Linux Makefile what is your
501 cross-compiler's binary, by issuing the following commands:
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Gentoo/SPARC kernel >=2.6.25 kernel compilation">
505 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
506 # <i>make CROSS_COMPILE=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-</i>
507 # <i>make CROSS_COMPILE=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu- image modules_install</i>
508 </pre>
509
510 </body>
511 </section>
512 </chapter>
513
514 <chapter>
515 <title>Miscellaneous</title>
516 <section>
517 <title>I'm interested in becoming more involved with Gentoo/SPARC. How do I go
518 about doing that?</title>
519 <body>
520
521 <p>
522 There are various ways to improve the project:
523 </p>
524
525 <ul>
526 <li>The best way is to become an <uri
527 link="/proj/en/base/sparc/at/index.xml">Arch Tester</uri>, and aid the
528 developers with package testing.
529 </li>
530 <li>File bug reports such as <uri
531 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~tcunha/reports/imlate-sparc.txt">stable, and
532 keyword</uri> requests.
533 </li>
534 <li>Join the <uri
535 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo-sparc">#gentoo-sparc</uri> IRC channel
536 on the FreeNode IRC network.
537 </li>
538 <li>Make use of the <uri
539 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum.php?f=27">Gentoo/SPARC forum</uri>.
540 </li>
541 <li>Propose solutions for Gentoo/SPARC related bugs via the <uri
542 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri>. The bugs will be
543 assigned, or CCed to sparc@gentoo.org.
544 </li>
545 </ul>
546
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 </chapter>
550
551 <chapter>
552 <title>Additional Resources</title>
553 <section>
554 <title>Where can I get more help or information about SPARC/Linux?</title>
555 <body>
556
557 <ul>
558 <li>
559 <uri link="http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/coll/216.2">OBP Reference
560 Guide</uri> - Sun's guide to the OpenBoot PROM
561 </li>
562 <li>
563 <uri link="http://www.sunstuff.org">OSIAH</uri> - Online Sun Information
564 Archive
565 </li>
566 <li>
567 <uri link="http://www.obsolyte.com">Obsolyte</uri> - Information on older
568 SPARC systems and links to a lot of other great SPARC related sites
569 </li>
570 <li>
571 <uri link="http://docs.sun.com">Sun Microsystems Documentation</uri> -
572 Additional hardware and software information for SPARC systems, including
573 instructions for flashing OBP
574 </li>
575 <li>
576 <uri link="http://sunsolve.sun.com">Sunsolve</uri> - Great resource for Sun
577 hardware documentation
578 </li>
579 <li>
580 <uri link="http://www.ultralinux.org">UltraLinux Homepage</uri> - Homepage
581 of the SPARC/Linux port
582 </li>
583 </ul>
584
585 </body>
586 </section>
587 </chapter>
588 </guide>

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