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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
5     <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
6    
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
9     </author>
10    
11     <abstract>
12     This document explains how to react when a new Gentoo release is announced.
13     </abstract>
14    
15     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
16     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
17     <license/>
18    
19     <version>1.1</version>
20     <date>May 12, 2004</date>
21    
22     <chapter>
23     <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
24     <section>
25     <title>Philosophy</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrade is quite different with respect to
30     the rest of the linux world. Probably you already know that we never got in
31     touch with the "classic" way to upgrade software in our distribution to the
32     latest version: waiting for a new release, downloading it, burning, putting it
33     in the cdrom drive and then following the upgrade instructions.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     You know (you chose Gentoo, after all) that this process is extremely
38     frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
39     users from other distributions must share the same feelings, given the
40     popularity and spread among them of tools like apt or apt-rpm, which make it
41     possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
42     suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users, because Gentoo was
43     shaped from the beginning around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47     Ideally, you install once and then do not bother anymore about releases:
48     just follow the instructions in
49     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
50     Software</uri> in the
51     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
52     your system up to date. While that's the way things go usually, it can
53     happen sometimes that developers push out, together with a new release, an
54     update that touches the basics of the systems. We will consider these cases
55     below, when talking about profiles.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </section>
60     <section>
61     <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
66     releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
67     There are various reasons:
68     </p>
69    
70     <ul>
71     <li>
72     A new release means enhanced and more feature-rich LiveCDs.
73     </li>
74     <li>
75     A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
76     choose "the fast way" to install, stage3 + precompiled packages, end up
77     with a system that is not outdated.
78     </li>
79     <li>
80     Finally, a new release may (not frequently) implement some features that
81     are incompatible with previous releases.
82     </li>
83     </ul>
84    
85     <p>
86     When a release provides new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
87     packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, or simply
88     when it makes tricky changes to some default parameters, we say that it
89     provides a new <e>profile</e>.
90     </p>
91    
92     <p>
93     A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
94     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
95     that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
96     mapping for virtual packages.
97     </p>
98    
99     <p>
100     The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
101     <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to the subdirectory of
102     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files, for instance <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0</path>.
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
107     as the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
108     file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
109     of this file is the name of the profile that should substitute it; portage uses
110     this information to automatically warn you about the new profile.
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>
114     There are various reasons that justify the creation of a new profile: the
115     release of new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>
116     or <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the
117     default USE flags, or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide
118     settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path>
119     instead of devfs).
120     </p>
121    
122     </body>
123     </section>
124     </chapter>
125    
126     <chapter>
127     <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
128     <section>
129     <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
130     <body>
131    
132     <p>
133     If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
134     as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
135     happened.
136     </p>
137    
138     <p>
139     If you update your installed packages
140     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
141     the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
142     that has been installed using the new release.
143     </p>
144    
145     </body>
146     </section>
147     <section>
148     <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
149     <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
153     new profile.
154     </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     Naturally, you are not forced to do so, you can continue to use the old profile
158     and just update your packages
159     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
160     the Gentoo Handbook</uri> (or you may want to not update your system at all).
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     However, Gentoo strongly recommends a migration if your profile becomes
165     deprecated and is no more supported by Gentoo developers, that is to say that
166     your profile is not listed anymore in the table below.
167     </p>
168    
169     <p>
170     If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
171     perform some actions. Those actions may vary a lot from release to release, it
172     depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
173     </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
177     link, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
178     while doing some voodoo stuff. In every case we will publish the instructions
179     for the migration as part of the release. You can find these instructions also
180     at the end of this guide.
181     </p>
182    
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     <section>
186     <title>Supported profiles</title>
187     <body>
188    
189     <p>
190     The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
191     </p>
192    
193     <table>
194     <tr>
195     <th>Architecture</th>
196     <th>Most recent profile</th>
197     <th>Other supported profiles</th>
198     </tr>
199     <tr>
200     <th>x86</th>
201     <ti>2004.0</ti>
202     <ti>1.4</ti>
203     </tr>
204     <tr>
205     <th>hardened-x86</th>
206     <ti>2004.0</ti>
207     <ti></ti>
208     </tr>
209     <tr>
210     <th>amd64</th>
211     <ti>2004.0</ti>
212     <ti></ti>
213     </tr>
214     <tr>
215     <th>ppc</th>
216     <ti>2004.0</ti>
217     <ti>1.4</ti>
218     </tr>
219     <tr>
220     <th>sparc</th>
221     <ti>2004.0</ti>
222     <ti>1.4</ti>
223     </tr>
224     <tr>
225     <th>mips</th>
226     <ti>2004.0</ti>
227     <ti>1.4</ti>
228     </tr>
229     <tr>
230     <th>hppa</th>
231     <ti>2004.0</ti>
232     <ti></ti>
233     </tr>
234     </table>
235    
236     </body>
237     </section>
238     </chapter>
239    
240     <chapter>
241     <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
242     <section>
243     <title>Updating from 1.4 to 2004.0 (all archs)</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247     There are no fundamental changes between 1.4 and 2004.0 profiles. Just point
248     the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link to the new location:
249     </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile link">
252     # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
253     # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
254     </pre>
255    
256     </body>
257     </section>
258     <section>
259     <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
260     <body>
261    
262     <p>
263     The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
264     <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
265     </p>
266    
267     </body>
268     </section>
269     </chapter>
270    
271     </guide>

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