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#65171 - Cascading profiles only good for Portage 2.0.51 and later

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.10 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.9 2004/08/13 13:42:30 swift Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10     </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13 vapier 1.7 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
14 swift 1.1 </abstract>
15    
16     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
18     <license/>
19    
20 swift 1.10 <version>2.3</version>
21     <date>September 25, 2004</date>
22 swift 1.1
23     <chapter>
24     <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25     <section>
26     <title>Philosophy</title>
27     <body>
28    
29     <p>
30 vapier 1.7 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
31     the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
32     touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
33     downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
34     upgrade instructions.
35 swift 1.1 </p>
36    
37     <p>
38 vapier 1.7 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
39     frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40     users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
41     popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
42     possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43     suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the beginning,
44     Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
45 swift 1.1 </p>
46    
47     <p>
48 vapier 1.7 Ideally, you install once and then do not to bother with releases:
49 swift 1.1 just follow the instructions in
50     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
51     Software</uri> in the
52     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
53 vapier 1.7 your system up to date. While that's the way things usually go, sometimes
54     changes are made to the core system which require updates to be done manually.
55 swift 1.1 </p>
56    
57     </body>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60     <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
61     <body>
62    
63     <p>
64     A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
65     releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
66     There are various reasons:
67     </p>
68    
69     <ul>
70     <li>
71 vapier 1.7 A new release means new LiveCDs with bugfixes and more features.
72 swift 1.1 </li>
73     <li>
74     A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
75 vapier 1.7 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) and end up
76 swift 1.1 with a system that is not outdated.
77     </li>
78     <li>
79 vapier 1.7 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
80 swift 1.1 are incompatible with previous releases.
81     </li>
82     </ul>
83    
84     <p>
85 vapier 1.7 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
86     packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
87     that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
88 swift 1.1 </p>
89    
90     <p>
91     A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
92     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
93     that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
94 vapier 1.7 mapping for virtual packages, and architecture that the system is running.
95 swift 1.1 </p>
96    
97     <p>
98     The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
99 vapier 1.7 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
100     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For instance,
101     the x86 2004.2 profile can be found at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.2</path>
102     (old-style location) or at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.2</path> (new-style
103 swift 1.10 location - only for use with Portage 2.0.51 and later). With respect to new-style profile directories, note that the files in
104 vapier 1.7 parent directories are part of the profile (and are therefore shared
105     by different subprofiles).
106 swift 1.1 </p>
107    
108     <p>
109     Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
110 vapier 1.7 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
111     file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
112     of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded to"; portage uses
113     this information to automatically warn you when you should update to a new profile.
114 swift 1.1 </p>
115    
116     <p>
117 vapier 1.7 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of new
118     versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or <c>glibc</c>)
119     that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the default USE flags, or
120     in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide settings (such as defining
121     udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path> instead of devfs).
122 swift 1.1 </p>
123    
124     </body>
125     </section>
126     </chapter>
127    
128     <chapter>
129     <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
130     <section>
131     <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
132     <body>
133    
134     <p>
135     If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
136 vapier 1.7 as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
137     happened :).
138 swift 1.1 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141 vapier 1.7 If you update your installed packages
142 swift 1.1 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
143     the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
144     that has been installed using the new release.
145     </p>
146    
147     </body>
148     </section>
149     <section>
150     <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
151     <body>
152    
153     <p>
154 vapier 1.7 If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
155 swift 1.1 new profile.
156     </p>
157    
158     <p>
159 vapier 1.7 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old profile
160 swift 1.1 and just update your packages
161     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
162 vapier 1.7 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
163 swift 1.1 </p>
164    
165     <p>
166 vapier 1.7 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes deprecated.
167     When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer plan on supporting it.
168     Using the table below, you can quickly check to see what profiles are currently supported.
169 swift 1.1 </p>
170    
171     <p>
172     If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
173 vapier 1.7 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release to release; it
174     depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile.
175 swift 1.1 </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
179 vapier 1.7 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
180     while doing a neat voodoo dance. Regardless, we will publish migration instructions
181     as part of the release. You can also find these instructions at the end of this guide.
182 swift 1.1 </p>
183    
184     </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Supported profiles</title>
188     <body>
189    
190     <p>
191     The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
192     </p>
193    
194     <table>
195     <tr>
196     <th>Architecture</th>
197     <th>Most recent profile</th>
198     <th>Other supported profiles</th>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201 vapier 1.7 <th>arm</th>
202     <ti>2004.0</ti>
203     <ti></ti>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <th>amd64</th>
207 dertobi123 1.5 <ti>2004.2</ti>
208 vapier 1.7 <ti>2004.0</ti>
209 swift 1.1 </tr>
210     <tr>
211     <th>hardened-x86</th>
212     <ti>2004.0</ti>
213     <ti></ti>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216 vapier 1.7 <th>hppa</th>
217 swift 1.1 <ti>2004.0</ti>
218 vapier 1.7 <ti></ti>
219 swift 1.1 </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>ppc</th>
222     <ti>2004.0</ti>
223 neysx 1.3 <ti></ti>
224 swift 1.1 </tr>
225     <tr>
226     <th>mips</th>
227 dertobi123 1.5 <ti>2004.1</ti>
228 swift 1.1 <ti>1.4</ti>
229     </tr>
230     <tr>
231 vapier 1.7 <th>sparc</th>
232 swift 1.1 <ti>2004.0</ti>
233 swift 1.9 <ti></ti>
234     </tr>
235     <tr>
236     <th>sparc64</th>
237     <ti>2004.0</ti>
238     <ti></ti>
239 swift 1.1 </tr>
240 dertobi123 1.5 <tr>
241 vapier 1.7 <th>x86</th>
242     <ti>2004.2</ti>
243     <ti>2004.0, 1.4</ti>
244 dertobi123 1.5 </tr>
245 swift 1.1 </table>
246    
247     </body>
248     </section>
249     </chapter>
250    
251     <chapter>
252     <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
253     <section>
254 dertobi123 1.5 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
255 swift 1.1 <body>
256    
257     <p>
258 vapier 1.7 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> symlink
259 dertobi123 1.5 to the new location:
260 swift 1.1 </p>
261    
262 vapier 1.7 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
263 dertobi123 1.5 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
264 swift 1.1 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
265 swift 1.8 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
266 swift 1.1 </pre>
267    
268 dertobi123 1.5 <p>
269     <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
270     <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
271     the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
272     an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
273 vapier 1.7 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
274 dertobi123 1.5 before.
275     </p>
276    
277     <p>
278     <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
279     specific action needs to be performed.
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </section>
284     <section>
285     <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 vapier 1.7 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> symlink
290 dertobi123 1.5 to the new location:
291     </p>
292    
293 vapier 1.7 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
294 dertobi123 1.5 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
295     # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
296     # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300     <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
301     specific action needs to be performed.
302     </p>
303    
304 swift 1.1 </body>
305     </section>
306     <section>
307     <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311     The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
312     <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
313     </p>
314    
315     </body>
316     </section>
317     </chapter>
318    
319     </guide>

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