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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 neysx 1.3 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.2 2004/05/15 01:02:37 neysx Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10     </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13     This document explains how to react when a new Gentoo release is announced.
14     </abstract>
15    
16     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
18     <license/>
19    
20     <version>1.1</version>
21     <date>May 12, 2004</date>
22    
23     <chapter>
24     <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25     <section>
26     <title>Philosophy</title>
27     <body>
28    
29     <p>
30     Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrade is quite different with respect to
31     the rest of the linux world. Probably you already know that we never got in
32     touch with the "classic" way to upgrade software in our distribution to the
33     latest version: waiting for a new release, downloading it, burning, putting it
34     in the cdrom drive and then following the upgrade instructions.
35     </p>
36    
37     <p>
38     You know (you chose Gentoo, after all) that this process is extremely
39     frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40     users from other distributions must share the same feelings, given the
41     popularity and spread among them of tools like apt or apt-rpm, which make it
42     possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43     suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users, because Gentoo was
44     shaped from the beginning around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
45     </p>
46    
47     <p>
48     Ideally, you install once and then do not bother anymore about releases:
49     just follow the instructions in
50     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
51     Software</uri> in the
52     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
53     your system up to date. While that's the way things go usually, it can
54     happen sometimes that developers push out, together with a new release, an
55     update that touches the basics of the systems. We will consider these cases
56     below, when talking about profiles.
57     </p>
58    
59     </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
63     <body>
64    
65     <p>
66     A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
67     releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
68     There are various reasons:
69     </p>
70    
71     <ul>
72     <li>
73     A new release means enhanced and more feature-rich LiveCDs.
74     </li>
75     <li>
76     A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
77     choose "the fast way" to install, stage3 + precompiled packages, end up
78     with a system that is not outdated.
79     </li>
80     <li>
81     Finally, a new release may (not frequently) implement some features that
82     are incompatible with previous releases.
83     </li>
84     </ul>
85    
86     <p>
87     When a release provides new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
88     packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, or simply
89     when it makes tricky changes to some default parameters, we say that it
90     provides a new <e>profile</e>.
91     </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
95     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
96     that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
97     mapping for virtual packages.
98     </p>
99    
100     <p>
101     The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
102     <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to the subdirectory of
103     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files, for instance <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0</path>.
104     </p>
105    
106     <p>
107     Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
108     as the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
109     file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
110     of this file is the name of the profile that should substitute it; portage uses
111     this information to automatically warn you about the new profile.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>
115     There are various reasons that justify the creation of a new profile: the
116     release of new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>
117     or <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the
118     default USE flags, or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide
119     settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path>
120     instead of devfs).
121     </p>
122    
123     </body>
124     </section>
125     </chapter>
126    
127     <chapter>
128     <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
129     <section>
130     <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134     If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
135     as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
136     happened.
137     </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     If you update your installed packages
141     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
142     the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
143     that has been installed using the new release.
144     </p>
145    
146     </body>
147     </section>
148     <section>
149     <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
154     new profile.
155     </p>
156    
157     <p>
158     Naturally, you are not forced to do so, you can continue to use the old profile
159     and just update your packages
160     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
161     the Gentoo Handbook</uri> (or you may want to not update your system at all).
162     </p>
163    
164     <p>
165     However, Gentoo strongly recommends a migration if your profile becomes
166     deprecated and is no more supported by Gentoo developers, that is to say that
167     your profile is not listed anymore in the table below.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
172     perform some actions. Those actions may vary a lot from release to release, it
173     depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
178     link, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
179     while doing some voodoo stuff. In every case we will publish the instructions
180     for the migration as part of the release. You can find these instructions also
181     at the end of this guide.
182     </p>
183    
184     </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Supported profiles</title>
188     <body>
189    
190     <p>
191     The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
192     </p>
193    
194     <table>
195     <tr>
196     <th>Architecture</th>
197     <th>Most recent profile</th>
198     <th>Other supported profiles</th>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <th>x86</th>
202     <ti>2004.0</ti>
203     <ti>1.4</ti>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <th>hardened-x86</th>
207     <ti>2004.0</ti>
208     <ti></ti>
209     </tr>
210     <tr>
211     <th>amd64</th>
212     <ti>2004.0</ti>
213     <ti></ti>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216     <th>ppc</th>
217     <ti>2004.0</ti>
218 neysx 1.3 <ti></ti>
219 swift 1.1 </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>sparc</th>
222     <ti>2004.0</ti>
223     <ti>1.4</ti>
224     </tr>
225     <tr>
226     <th>mips</th>
227     <ti>2004.0</ti>
228     <ti>1.4</ti>
229     </tr>
230     <tr>
231     <th>hppa</th>
232     <ti>2004.0</ti>
233     <ti></ti>
234     </tr>
235     </table>
236    
237     </body>
238     </section>
239     </chapter>
240    
241     <chapter>
242     <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
243     <section>
244     <title>Updating from 1.4 to 2004.0 (all archs)</title>
245     <body>
246    
247     <p>
248     There are no fundamental changes between 1.4 and 2004.0 profiles. Just point
249     the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link to the new location:
250     </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile link">
253     # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
254     # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
255     </pre>
256    
257     </body>
258     </section>
259     <section>
260     <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
261     <body>
262    
263     <p>
264     The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
265     <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
266     </p>
267    
268     </body>
269     </section>
270     </chapter>
271    
272     </guide>

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