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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 neysx 1.4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.3 2004/06/01 07:36:12 neysx Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10     </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13     This document explains how to react when a new Gentoo release is announced.
14     </abstract>
15    
16     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
18     <license/>
19    
20 neysx 1.4 <version>1.2</version>
21     <date>July 1, 2004</date>
22 swift 1.1
23     <chapter>
24     <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25     <section>
26     <title>Philosophy</title>
27     <body>
28    
29     <p>
30     Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrade is quite different with respect to
31     the rest of the linux world. Probably you already know that we never got in
32     touch with the "classic" way to upgrade software in our distribution to the
33     latest version: waiting for a new release, downloading it, burning, putting it
34     in the cdrom drive and then following the upgrade instructions.
35     </p>
36    
37     <p>
38     You know (you chose Gentoo, after all) that this process is extremely
39     frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40     users from other distributions must share the same feelings, given the
41     popularity and spread among them of tools like apt or apt-rpm, which make it
42     possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43     suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users, because Gentoo was
44     shaped from the beginning around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
45     </p>
46    
47     <p>
48     Ideally, you install once and then do not bother anymore about releases:
49     just follow the instructions in
50     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
51     Software</uri> in the
52     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
53     your system up to date. While that's the way things go usually, it can
54     happen sometimes that developers push out, together with a new release, an
55     update that touches the basics of the systems. We will consider these cases
56     below, when talking about profiles.
57     </p>
58    
59     </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
63     <body>
64    
65     <p>
66     A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
67     releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
68     There are various reasons:
69     </p>
70    
71     <ul>
72     <li>
73     A new release means enhanced and more feature-rich LiveCDs.
74     </li>
75     <li>
76     A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
77     choose "the fast way" to install, stage3 + precompiled packages, end up
78     with a system that is not outdated.
79     </li>
80     <li>
81     Finally, a new release may (not frequently) implement some features that
82     are incompatible with previous releases.
83     </li>
84     </ul>
85    
86     <p>
87     When a release provides new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
88     packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, or simply
89     when it makes tricky changes to some default parameters, we say that it
90     provides a new <e>profile</e>.
91     </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
95     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
96     that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
97     mapping for virtual packages.
98     </p>
99    
100     <p>
101     The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
102 neysx 1.4 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to the subdirectory of
103     <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files, for instance
104     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0</path> (old-style location) or
105     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.0</path> (new-style
106     location). With respect to new-style profile directories, note that also the
107     files in parent directories are part of the profile (and are therefore shared
108     by different profiles).
109 swift 1.1 </p>
110    
111     <p>
112     Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
113     as the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
114     file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
115     of this file is the name of the profile that should substitute it; portage uses
116     this information to automatically warn you about the new profile.
117     </p>
118    
119     <p>
120     There are various reasons that justify the creation of a new profile: the
121     release of new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>
122     or <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the
123     default USE flags, or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide
124     settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path>
125     instead of devfs).
126     </p>
127    
128     </body>
129     </section>
130     </chapter>
131    
132     <chapter>
133     <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
134     <section>
135     <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
136     <body>
137    
138     <p>
139     If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
140     as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
141     happened.
142     </p>
143    
144     <p>
145     If you update your installed packages
146     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
147     the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
148     that has been installed using the new release.
149     </p>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     <section>
154     <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
155     <body>
156    
157     <p>
158     If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
159     new profile.
160     </p>
161    
162     <p>
163     Naturally, you are not forced to do so, you can continue to use the old profile
164     and just update your packages
165     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
166     the Gentoo Handbook</uri> (or you may want to not update your system at all).
167     </p>
168    
169     <p>
170     However, Gentoo strongly recommends a migration if your profile becomes
171     deprecated and is no more supported by Gentoo developers, that is to say that
172     your profile is not listed anymore in the table below.
173     </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
177     perform some actions. Those actions may vary a lot from release to release, it
178     depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
179     </p>
180    
181     <p>
182     In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
183     link, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
184     while doing some voodoo stuff. In every case we will publish the instructions
185     for the migration as part of the release. You can find these instructions also
186     at the end of this guide.
187     </p>
188    
189     </body>
190     </section>
191     <section>
192     <title>Supported profiles</title>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196     The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
197     </p>
198    
199     <table>
200     <tr>
201     <th>Architecture</th>
202     <th>Most recent profile</th>
203     <th>Other supported profiles</th>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <th>x86</th>
207     <ti>2004.0</ti>
208     <ti>1.4</ti>
209     </tr>
210     <tr>
211     <th>hardened-x86</th>
212     <ti>2004.0</ti>
213     <ti></ti>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216     <th>amd64</th>
217     <ti>2004.0</ti>
218     <ti></ti>
219     </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>ppc</th>
222     <ti>2004.0</ti>
223 neysx 1.3 <ti></ti>
224 swift 1.1 </tr>
225     <tr>
226     <th>sparc</th>
227     <ti>2004.0</ti>
228     <ti>1.4</ti>
229     </tr>
230     <tr>
231     <th>mips</th>
232     <ti>2004.0</ti>
233     <ti>1.4</ti>
234     </tr>
235     <tr>
236     <th>hppa</th>
237     <ti>2004.0</ti>
238     <ti></ti>
239     </tr>
240     </table>
241    
242     </body>
243     </section>
244     </chapter>
245    
246     <chapter>
247     <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
248     <section>
249     <title>Updating from 1.4 to 2004.0 (all archs)</title>
250     <body>
251    
252     <p>
253     There are no fundamental changes between 1.4 and 2004.0 profiles. Just point
254     the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link to the new location:
255     </p>
256    
257     <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile link">
258     # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
259 neysx 1.4 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
260 swift 1.1 </pre>
261    
262     </body>
263     </section>
264     <section>
265     <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
266     <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
270     <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
271     </p>
272    
273     </body>
274     </section>
275     </chapter>
276    
277     </guide>

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