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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
6
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
9 </author>
10
11 <abstract>
12 This document explains how to react when a new Gentoo release is announced.
13 </abstract>
14
15 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
16 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
17 <license/>
18
19 <version>1.1</version>
20 <date>May 12, 2004</date>
21
22 <chapter>
23 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
24 <section>
25 <title>Philosophy</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrade is quite different with respect to
30 the rest of the linux world. Probably you already know that we never got in
31 touch with the "classic" way to upgrade software in our distribution to the
32 latest version: waiting for a new release, downloading it, burning, putting it
33 in the cdrom drive and then following the upgrade instructions.
34 </p>
35
36 <p>
37 You know (you chose Gentoo, after all) that this process is extremely
38 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
39 users from other distributions must share the same feelings, given the
40 popularity and spread among them of tools like apt or apt-rpm, which make it
41 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
42 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users, because Gentoo was
43 shaped from the beginning around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 Ideally, you install once and then do not bother anymore about releases:
48 just follow the instructions in
49 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
50 Software</uri> in the
51 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
52 your system up to date. While that's the way things go usually, it can
53 happen sometimes that developers push out, together with a new release, an
54 update that touches the basics of the systems. We will consider these cases
55 below, when talking about profiles.
56 </p>
57
58 </body>
59 </section>
60 <section>
61 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
66 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
67 There are various reasons:
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A new release means enhanced and more feature-rich LiveCDs.
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
76 choose "the fast way" to install, stage3 + precompiled packages, end up
77 with a system that is not outdated.
78 </li>
79 <li>
80 Finally, a new release may (not frequently) implement some features that
81 are incompatible with previous releases.
82 </li>
83 </ul>
84
85 <p>
86 When a release provides new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
87 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, or simply
88 when it makes tricky changes to some default parameters, we say that it
89 provides a new <e>profile</e>.
90 </p>
91
92 <p>
93 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
94 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
95 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
96 mapping for virtual packages.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
101 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to the subdirectory of
102 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files, for instance <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0</path>.
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
107 as the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
108 file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
109 of this file is the name of the profile that should substitute it; portage uses
110 this information to automatically warn you about the new profile.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 There are various reasons that justify the creation of a new profile: the
115 release of new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>
116 or <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the
117 default USE flags, or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide
118 settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path>
119 instead of devfs).
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 </chapter>
125
126 <chapter>
127 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
128 <section>
129 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
130 <body>
131
132 <p>
133 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
134 as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
135 happened.
136 </p>
137
138 <p>
139 If you update your installed packages
140 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
141 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
142 that has been installed using the new release.
143 </p>
144
145 </body>
146 </section>
147 <section>
148 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
153 new profile.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, you can continue to use the old profile
158 and just update your packages
159 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
160 the Gentoo Handbook</uri> (or you may want to not update your system at all).
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 However, Gentoo strongly recommends a migration if your profile becomes
165 deprecated and is no more supported by Gentoo developers, that is to say that
166 your profile is not listed anymore in the table below.
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
171 perform some actions. Those actions may vary a lot from release to release, it
172 depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
177 link, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
178 while doing some voodoo stuff. In every case we will publish the instructions
179 for the migration as part of the release. You can find these instructions also
180 at the end of this guide.
181 </p>
182
183 </body>
184 </section>
185 <section>
186 <title>Supported profiles</title>
187 <body>
188
189 <p>
190 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
191 </p>
192
193 <table>
194 <tr>
195 <th>Architecture</th>
196 <th>Most recent profile</th>
197 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
198 </tr>
199 <tr>
200 <th>x86</th>
201 <ti>2004.0</ti>
202 <ti>1.4</ti>
203 </tr>
204 <tr>
205 <th>hardened-x86</th>
206 <ti>2004.0</ti>
207 <ti></ti>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>amd64</th>
211 <ti>2004.0</ti>
212 <ti></ti>
213 </tr>
214 <tr>
215 <th>ppc</th>
216 <ti>2004.0</ti>
217 <ti>1.4</ti>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>sparc</th>
221 <ti>2004.0</ti>
222 <ti>1.4</ti>
223 </tr>
224 <tr>
225 <th>mips</th>
226 <ti>2004.0</ti>
227 <ti>1.4</ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <th>hppa</th>
231 <ti>2004.0</ti>
232 <ti></ti>
233 </tr>
234 </table>
235
236 </body>
237 </section>
238 </chapter>
239
240 <chapter>
241 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
242 <section>
243 <title>Updating from 1.4 to 2004.0 (all archs)</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 There are no fundamental changes between 1.4 and 2004.0 profiles. Just point
248 the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link to the new location:
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile link">
252 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
253 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section>
259 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
264 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
265 </p>
266
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 </chapter>
270
271 </guide>

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