/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.16 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Dec 18 15:14:26 2004 UTC (9 years, 9 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.15: +8 -8 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#74409 Use better English

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/08 10:04:42 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
18 <license/>
19
20 <version>2.7</version>
21 <date>November 08, 2004</date>
22
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>Philosophy</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
31 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
32 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
33 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
34 upgrade instructions.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
39 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
41 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
42 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the beginning,
44 Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
45 </p>
46
47 <p>
48 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
49 instructions in <uri
50 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
51 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
52 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
53 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
54 to be done manually.
55 </p>
56
57 </body>
58 </section>
59 <section>
60 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
65 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
66 There are various reasons:
67 </p>
68
69 <ul>
70 <li>
71 A new release means new LiveCDs with bugfixes and more features.
72 </li>
73 <li>
74 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
75 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
76 with a system that is not outdated.
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
80 are incompatible with previous releases.
81 </li>
82 </ul>
83
84 <p>
85 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
86 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
87 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
92 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
93 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
94 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
99 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
100 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For instance,
101 the x86 2004.2 profile can be found at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.2</path>
102 (old-style location) or at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.2</path> (new-style
103 location - only for use with Portage 2.0.51 and later). With respect to new-style profile directories, note that the files in
104 parent directories are part of the profile (and are therefore shared
105 by different subprofiles).
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
110 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
111 file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
112 of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded to"; portage uses
113 this information to automatically warn you when you should update to a new profile.
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of new
118 versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or <c>glibc</c>)
119 that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the default USE flags or
120 in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide settings (such as defining
121 udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path> instead of devfs).
122 </p>
123
124 </body>
125 </section>
126 </chapter>
127
128 <chapter>
129 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
130 <section>
131 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
132 <body>
133
134 <p>
135 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
136 as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
137 happened :).
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 If you update your installed packages
142 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
143 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
144 that has been installed using the new release.
145 </p>
146
147 </body>
148 </section>
149 <section>
150 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
151 <body>
152
153 <p>
154 If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
155 new profile.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old profile
160 and just update your packages
161 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
162 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes deprecated.
167 When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer plan on supporting it.
168 Using the table below, you can quickly check to see what profiles are currently supported.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
173 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release to release; it
174 depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
179 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
180 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
181 notes (e.g. <uri
182 link="/proj/en/releng/release/2004.3/x86-release-notes.xml">the x86 2004.3
183 release notes</uri>). You can also find <uri
184 link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the end of this guide.
185 </p>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Supported profiles</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
195 </p>
196
197 <table>
198 <tr>
199 <th>Architecture</th>
200 <th>Most recent profile</th>
201 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
202 </tr>
203 <tr>
204 <th>alpha</th>
205 <ti>2004.3</ti>
206 <ti></ti>
207 </tr>
208 <tr>
209 <th>arm</th>
210 <ti>2004.3</ti>
211 <ti></ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <th>amd64</th>
215 <ti>2004.3</ti>
216 <ti>2004.2, 2004.0</ti>
217 </tr>
218 <tr>
219 <th>hppa</th>
220 <ti>2004.3</ti>
221 <ti>2004.2</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <th>ia64</th>
225 <ti>2004.3</ti>
226 <ti></ti>
227 </tr>
228 <tr>
229 <th>ppc</th>
230 <ti>2004.3</ti>
231 <ti>2004.0</ti>
232 </tr>
233 <tr>
234 <th>mips</th>
235 <ti>2004.2</ti>
236 <ti></ti>
237 </tr>
238 <tr>
239 <th>s390</th>
240 <ti>2004.3</ti>
241 <ti></ti>
242 </tr>
243 <tr>
244 <th>sparc</th>
245 <ti>2004.3</ti>
246 <ti>2004.0</ti>
247 </tr>
248 <tr>
249 <th>x86</th>
250 <ti>2004.3</ti>
251 <ti>2004.2, 2004.0</ti>
252 </tr>
253 </table>
254
255 </body>
256 </section>
257 </chapter>
258
259 <chapter id="instructions">
260 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
261 <section>
262 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
263 <body>
264
265 <p>
266 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
267 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
268 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
269 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
270 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
271 directory, for instance
272 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
273 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
274 </p>
275
276 <p>
277 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
278 symlink to the new location:
279 </p>
280
281 <warn>
282 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
283 </warn>
284
285 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
286 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
287 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
288 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
289 </pre>
290
291 <p>
292 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
293 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
294 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
295 that if you run <c>emerge depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
296 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
297 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
298 emerge them.
299 </p>
300
301 <p>
302 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of <c>sys-fs/devfs</c>
303 for newly installed machines. This has no effect on already installed machines,
304 though.
305 </p>
306
307 </body>
308 </section>
309 <section>
310 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> symlink
315 to the new location:
316 </p>
317
318 <warn>
319 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
320 </warn>
321
322 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
323 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
324 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
325 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
330 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
331 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
332 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
333 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
334 before.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
339 specific action needs to be performed.
340 </p>
341
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 <section>
345 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> symlink
350 to the new location:
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
354 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
355 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
356 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
357 </pre>
358
359 <p>
360 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
361 specific action needs to be performed.
362 </p>
363
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>
371 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
372 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
373 </p>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 </chapter>
378
379 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20