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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.18 2005/01/25 11:48:14 neysx Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
18 <license/>
19
20 <version>2.8</version>
21 <date>2005-01-22</date>
22
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>Philosophy</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
31 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
32 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
33 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
34 upgrade instructions.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
39 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
41 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
42 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the
44 beginning, Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental
45 updates.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
50 instructions in <uri
51 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
52 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
53 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
54 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
55 to be done manually.
56 </p>
57
58 </body>
59 </section>
60 <section>
61 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
66 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
67 There are various reasons:
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A new release means new LiveCDs with bugfixes and more features.
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
76 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
77 with a system that is not outdated.
78 </li>
79 <li>
80 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
81 are incompatible with previous releases.
82 </li>
83 </ul>
84
85 <p>
86 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
87 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
88 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
93 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
94 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
95 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
100 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
101 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For
102 instance, the x86 2004.2 profile can be found at
103 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.2</path> (old-style location) or
104 at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.2</path> (new-style
105 location - only for use with Portage 2.0.51 and later). With respect to
106 new-style profile directories, note that the files in
107 parent directories are part of the profile (and are therefore shared
108 by different subprofiles).
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
113 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that
114 happens a file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory.
115 The content of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded
116 to"; portage uses this information to automatically warn you when you should
117 update to a new profile.
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of
122 new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or
123 <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in
124 the default USE flags or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in
125 system-wide settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager
126 for <path>/dev</path> instead of devfs).
127 </p>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 </chapter>
132
133 <chapter>
134 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
135 <section>
136 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
141 as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
142 happened :).
143 </p>
144
145 <p>
146 If you update your installed packages
147 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
148 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
149 that has been installed using the new release.
150 </p>
151
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 <section>
155 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
156 <body>
157
158 <p>
159 If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
160 new profile.
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old
165 profile and just update your packages
166 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained
167 in the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
168 </p>
169
170 <p>
171 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes
172 deprecated. When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer
173 plan on supporting it. Using the table below, you can quickly check to
174 see what profiles are currently supported.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
179 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release
180 to release; it depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new
181 profile are.
182 </p>
183
184 <p>
185 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
186 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
187 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
188 notes (e.g. <uri
189 link="/proj/en/releng/release/2004.3/x86-release-notes.xml">the x86 2004.3
190 release notes</uri>). You can also find <uri
191 link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the end of this guide.
192 </p>
193
194 </body>
195 </section>
196 <section>
197 <title>Supported profiles</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
202 </p>
203
204 <table>
205 <tr>
206 <th>Architecture</th>
207 <th>Most recent profile</th>
208 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
209 </tr>
210 <tr>
211 <th>alpha</th>
212 <ti>2004.3</ti>
213 <ti></ti>
214 </tr>
215 <tr>
216 <th>arm</th>
217 <ti>2004.3</ti>
218 <ti></ti>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>amd64</th>
222 <ti>2004.3</ti>
223 <ti>2004.2, 2004.0</ti>
224 </tr>
225 <tr>
226 <th>hppa</th>
227 <ti>2004.3</ti>
228 <ti>2004.2</ti>
229 </tr>
230 <tr>
231 <th>ia64</th>
232 <ti>2004.3</ti>
233 <ti></ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th>ppc</th>
237 <ti>2004.3</ti>
238 <ti>2004.0</ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <th>mips</th>
242 <ti>2004.2</ti>
243 <ti></ti>
244 </tr>
245 <tr>
246 <th>s390</th>
247 <ti>2004.3</ti>
248 <ti></ti>
249 </tr>
250 <tr>
251 <th>sparc</th>
252 <ti>2004.3</ti>
253 <ti>2004.0</ti>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <th>x86</th>
257 <ti>2004.3</ti>
258 <ti>2004.2, 2004.0</ti>
259 </tr>
260 </table>
261
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 </chapter>
265
266 <chapter id="instructions">
267 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
268 <section>
269 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
274 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
275 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
276 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
277 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
278 directory, for instance
279 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
280 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
285 symlink to the new location:
286 </p>
287
288 <warn>
289 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
290 </warn>
291
292 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
293 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
294 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
295 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
296 </pre>
297
298 <p>
299 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
300 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
301 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
302 that if you run <c>emerge --depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
303 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
304 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
305 emerge them.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of
310 <c>sys-fs/devfs</c> for newly installed machines. This has no
311 effect on already installed machines, though.
312 </p>
313
314 </body>
315 </section>
316 <section>
317 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
322 symlink to the new location:
323 </p>
324
325 <warn>
326 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
327 </warn>
328
329 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
330 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
331 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
332 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <p>
336 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
337 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
338 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
339 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
340 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
341 before.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
346 specific action needs to be performed.
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </section>
351 <section>
352 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
357 symlink to the new location:
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
361 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
362 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
363 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
368 specific action needs to be performed.
369 </p>
370
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
379 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 </chapter>
385
386 </guide>

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