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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.19 2005/01/25 21:37:58 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
18 <license/>
19
20 <version>2.9</version>
21 <date>2005-03-28</date>
22
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>Philosophy</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
31 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
32 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
33 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
34 upgrade instructions.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
39 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
41 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
42 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the
44 beginning, Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental
45 updates.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
50 instructions in <uri
51 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
52 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
53 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
54 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
55 to be done manually.
56 </p>
57
58 </body>
59 </section>
60 <section>
61 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
66 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
67 There are various reasons:
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A new release means new LiveCDs with bugfixes and more features.
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
76 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
77 with a system that is not outdated.
78 </li>
79 <li>
80 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
81 are incompatible with previous releases.
82 </li>
83 </ul>
84
85 <p>
86 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
87 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
88 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
93 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
94 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
95 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
100 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
101 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For
102 instance, the default x86 2005.0 profile can be found
103 at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2005.0</path>.
104 The files in the parent directories are part of the profile as well (and
105 are therefore shared by different subprofiles). This is why we call these
106 <e>cascaded profiles</e>.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
111 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that
112 happens a file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory.
113 The content of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded
114 to"; portage uses this information to automatically warn you when you should
115 update to a new profile.
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of
120 new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or
121 <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in
122 the default USE flags or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in
123 system-wide settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager
124 for <path>/dev</path> instead of devfs).
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </section>
129 </chapter>
130
131 <chapter>
132 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
133 <section>
134 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile
139 then you can safely pretend that it never happened :).
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 If you update your installed packages
144 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
145 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
146 that has been installed using the new release.
147 </p>
148
149 </body>
150 </section>
151 <section>
152 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
153 <body>
154
155 <p>
156 If a release (such as 2005.0) introduces a new profile, you have the choice
157 to migrate to the new profile.
158 </p>
159
160 <p>
161 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old
162 profile and just update your packages
163 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained
164 in the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes
169 deprecated. When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer
170 plan on supporting it. Using the table below, you can quickly check to
171 see what profiles are currently supported.
172 </p>
173
174 <p>
175 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
176 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release
177 to release; it depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new
178 profile are.
179 </p>
180
181 <p>
182 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
183 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
184 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
185 notes. You can also find <uri link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the
186 end of this guide.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </section>
191 <section>
192 <title>Supported profiles</title>
193 <body>
194
195 <p>
196 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
197 </p>
198
199 <table>
200 <tr>
201 <th>Architecture</th>
202 <th>Most recent profiles</th>
203 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <th>alpha</th>
207 <ti>2005.0, 2005.0/2.4</ti>
208 <ti>2004.3</ti>
209 </tr>
210 <tr>
211 <th>arm</th>
212 <ti>2005.0</ti>
213 <ti>2004.3</ti>
214 </tr>
215 <tr>
216 <th>amd64</th>
217 <ti>2005.0, 2005.0/no-multilib</ti>
218 <ti>2004.3</ti>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>hppa</th>
222 <ti>2005.0, 2005.0/2.4</ti>
223 <ti>2004.3, 2004.2</ti>
224 </tr>
225 <tr>
226 <th>ia64</th>
227 <ti>2005.0</ti>
228 <ti></ti>
229 </tr>
230 <tr>
231 <th>ppc</th>
232 <ti>2005.0</ti>
233 <ti>2004.3, 2004.0</ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th>mips</th>
237 <ti>2005.0</ti>
238 <ti>2004.2</ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <th>s390</th>
242 <ti>2005.0</ti>
243 <ti>2004.3</ti>
244 </tr>
245 <tr>
246 <th>sparc</th>
247 <ti>2005.0</ti>
248 <ti>2004.3, 2004.0</ti>
249 </tr>
250 <tr>
251 <th>x86</th>
252 <ti>2005.0, 2005.0/2.4</ti>
253 <ti>2004.3, 2004.2, 2004.0</ti>
254 </tr>
255 </table>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 </chapter>
260
261 <chapter id="instructions">
262 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
263 <section>
264 <title>Updating to 2005.0</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 With the introduction of 2005.0, several architectures have decided to define
269 additional profiles. Make sure you read the description of said profiles before
270 you decide to migrate to one of them. Most architectures now also default to the
271 2.6 kernel tree where 2.4 was chosen previously.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Some architectures require a bit more actions to be completed in order to
276 convert from one profile to another. If that is the case, the step-by-step
277 guides are linked from the table.
278 </p>
279
280 <table>
281 <tr>
282 <th>Profile</th>
283 <th>Description</th>
284 <th>Specific Upgrade Guide</th>
285 </tr>
286 <tr>
287 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0</ti>
288 <ti>Default Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
289 <ti></ti>
290 </tr>
291 <tr>
292 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0/2.4</ti>
293 <ti>Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
294 <ti></ti>
295 </tr>
296 <tr>
297 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0</ti>
298 <ti>Default AMD64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
299 <ti>
300 <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/2005.0-upgrade-amd64.xml">Upgrading to
301 2005.0</uri>
302 </ti>
303 </tr>
304 <tr>
305 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0/no-multilib</ti>
306 <ti>AMD64 2005.0 profile for multilib-disabled system installations</ti>
307 <ti>
308 <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/2005.0-upgrade-amd64.xml">Upgrading to
309 2005.0</uri>
310 </ti>
311 </tr>
312 <tr>
313 <ti>default-linux/arm/2005.0</ti>
314 <ti>Default ARM 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
315 <ti></ti>
316 </tr>
317 <tr>
318 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0</ti>
319 <ti>Default HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
320 <ti></ti>
321 </tr>
322 <tr>
323 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0/2.4</ti>
324 <ti>HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
325 <ti></ti>
326 </tr>
327 <tr>
328 <ti>default-linux/mips/2005.0</ti>
329 <ti>Default MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
330 <ti></ti>
331 </tr>
332 <tr>
333 <ti>default-linux/mips/cobalt/2005.0</ti>
334 <ti>Cobalt specific MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
335 <ti></ti>
336 </tr>
337 <tr>
338 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/n32/2005.0</ti>
339 <ti>2005.0 profile for n32-supporting MIPS platforms</ti>
340 <ti></ti>
341 </tr>
342 <tr>
343 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/ip28/2005.0</ti>
344 <ti>Indigo2 Impact specific 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
345 <ti></ti>
346 </tr>
347 <tr>
348 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/2005.0</ti>
349 <ti>64-bit MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
350 <ti></ti>
351 </tr>
352 <tr>
353 <ti>default-linux/ppc/2005.0</ti>
354 <ti>Default PPC 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
355 <ti></ti>
356 </tr>
357 <tr>
358 <ti>default-linux/ppc64/2005.0</ti>
359 <ti>Default PPC64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
360 <ti></ti>
361 </tr>
362 <tr>
363 <ti>default-linux/s390/2005.0</ti>
364 <ti>Default S390 2005.0 profile</ti>
365 <ti></ti>
366 </tr>
367 <tr>
368 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0</ti>
369 <ti>Default Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
370 <ti></ti>
371 </tr>
372 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
373 No subprofiles for sparc
374 <tr>
375 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0/2.6</ti>
376 <ti>Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
377 <ti></ti>
378 </tr>
379 -->
380 <tr>
381 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0</ti>
382 <ti>Default Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
383 <ti></ti>
384 </tr>
385 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
386 No subprofiles for sparc
387 <tr>
388 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0/2.6</ti>
389 <ti>Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
390 <ti></ti>
391 </tr>
392 -->
393 <tr>
394 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0</ti>
395 <ti>Default x86 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
396 <ti></ti>
397 </tr>
398 <tr>
399 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</ti>
400 <ti>x86 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
401 <ti></ti>
402 </tr>
403 </table>
404
405 <p>
406 To switch to the selected profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
407 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you change
408 your profile!
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.0 profile">
412 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
413 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
414 </pre>
415
416 <p>
417 If you are running a Linux 2.4-based system but want to migrate to a 2.6-based
418 kernel, make sure you read our <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">Gentoo
419 Linux 2.6 Migration Guide</uri>.
420 </p>
421
422 </body>
423 </section>
424 <section>
425 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
430 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
431 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
432 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
433 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
434 directory, for instance
435 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
436 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
437 </p>
438
439 <p>
440 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
441 symlink to the new location:
442 </p>
443
444 <warn>
445 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
446 </warn>
447
448 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
449 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
450 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
451 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>
455 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
456 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
457 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
458 that if you run <c>emerge --depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
459 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
460 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
461 emerge them.
462 </p>
463
464 <p>
465 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of
466 <c>sys-fs/devfs</c> for newly installed machines. This has no
467 effect on already installed machines, though.
468 </p>
469
470 </body>
471 </section>
472 <section>
473 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
474 <body>
475
476 <p>
477 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
478 symlink to the new location:
479 </p>
480
481 <warn>
482 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
483 </warn>
484
485 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
486 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
487 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
488 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
489 </pre>
490
491 <p>
492 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
493 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
494 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
495 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
496 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
497 before.
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
502 specific action needs to be performed.
503 </p>
504
505 </body>
506 </section>
507 <section>
508 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
509 <body>
510
511 <p>
512 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
513 symlink to the new location:
514 </p>
515
516 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
517 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
518 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
519 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
524 specific action needs to be performed.
525 </p>
526
527 </body>
528 </section>
529 <section>
530 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
531 <body>
532
533 <p>
534 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
535 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </section>
540 </chapter>
541
542 </guide>

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