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updated gentoo-upgrading guide for the undefined locale/unicode gotcha in bug 147062

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.35 2006/11/09 07:00:18 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="wolf31o2@gentoo.org">Chris Gianelloni</mail>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
17 </abstract>
18
19 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21 <license/>
22
23 <version>2.7</version>
24 <date>2007-01-09</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Philosophy</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
34 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
35 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
36 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
37 upgrade instructions.
38 </p>
39
40 <p>
41 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
42 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
43 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
44 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
45 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distribution is more
46 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the
47 beginning, Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental
48 updates.
49 </p>
50
51 <p>
52 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
53 instructions in <uri
54 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
55 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
56 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
57 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
58 to be done manually.
59 </p>
60
61 </body>
62 </section>
63 <section>
64 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
69 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
70 There are various reasons:
71 </p>
72
73 <ul>
74 <li>
75 A new release means new Installation CDs with bugfixes and more features.
76 </li>
77 <li>
78 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
79 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
80 with a system that is not outdated.
81 </li>
82 <li>
83 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
84 are incompatible with previous releases.
85 </li>
86 </ul>
87
88 <p>
89 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
90 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
91 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
96 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
97 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
98 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
103 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
104 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For
105 instance, the default x86 2006.1 profile can be found
106 at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1</path>.
107 The files in the parent directories are part of the profile as well (and
108 are therefore shared by different subprofiles). This is why we call these
109 <e>cascaded profiles</e>.
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
114 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that
115 happens a file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory.
116 The content of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded
117 to"; portage uses this information to automatically warn you when you should
118 update to a new profile.
119 </p>
120
121 <p>
122 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of
123 new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or
124 <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in
125 the default USE flags or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in
126 system-wide settings.
127 </p>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 </chapter>
132
133 <chapter>
134 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
135 <section>
136 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile
141 then you can safely pretend that it never happened :).
142 </p>
143
144 <p>
145 If you update your installed packages
146 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
147 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
148 that has been installed using the new release.
149 </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 If a release (such as 2006.1 for x86) introduces a new profile, you have the
159 choice to migrate to the new profile.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old
164 profile and just update your packages
165 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained
166 in the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes
171 deprecated. When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer
172 plan on supporting it. Using the table below, you can quickly check to
173 see what profiles are currently supported.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
178 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release
179 to release; it depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new
180 profile are.
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
185 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
186 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
187 notes. You can also find <uri link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the
188 end of this guide.
189 </p>
190
191 </body>
192 </section>
193 <section>
194 <title>Supported profiles</title>
195 <body>
196
197 <p>
198 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
199 </p>
200
201 <table>
202 <tr>
203 <th>Architecture</th>
204 <th>Most recent profiles</th>
205 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
206 </tr>
207 <tr>
208 <th>alpha</th>
209 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2006.1</ti>
210 <ti>
211 default-linux/alpha/2006.0, default-linux/alpha/2006.1/desktop,
212 default-linux/alpha/2006.1/server, default-linux/alpha/no-nptl,
213 default-linux/alpha/no-nptl/2.4
214 </ti>
215 </tr>
216 <tr>
217 <th>arm</th>
218 <ti>default-linux/arm/2004.3</ti>
219 <ti></ti>
220 </tr>
221 <tr>
222 <th>amd64</th>
223 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2006.1</ti>
224 <ti>
225 default-linux/amd64/2006.0, default-linux/amd64/2006.0/no-multilib,
226 default-linux/amd64/2006.1/desktop, default-linux/amd64/2006.1/server,
227 default-linux/amd64/2006.1/no-multilib
228 </ti>
229 </tr>
230 <tr>
231 <th>hppa</th>
232 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2006.1</ti>
233 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0</ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th>ia64</th>
237 <ti>default-linux/ia64/2006.0</ti>
238 <ti>default-linux/ia64/2005.0</ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <th>ppc</th>
242 <ti>default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1, default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1</ti>
243 <ti>
244 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0, default-linux/ppc/ppc64,2006.0,
245 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0/G3,
246 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0/G3/Pegasos,
247 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0/G4,
248 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0/G4/Pegasos,
249 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006,1/G3,
250 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos,
251 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4,
252 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos,
253 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/32bit-userland,
254 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/32bit-userland/970,
255 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/32bit-userland/power3,
256 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/32bit-userland/power4,
257 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/32bit-userland/power5,
258 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/64bit-userland/970,
259 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/64bit-userland/power3,
260 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/64bit-userland/power4,
261 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.0/64bit-userland/power5,
262 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland,
263 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland/970,
264 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland/power3,
265 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland/power4,
266 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland/power5,
267 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland/970,
268 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland/power3,
269 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland/power4,
270 default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland/power5
271 </ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <th>mips</th>
275 <ti>default-linux/mips/2006.1</ti>
276 <ti>
277 default-linux/mips/2006.1/cobalt/o32,
278 default-linux/mips/2006.1/generic-be/o32,
279 default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip27/o32, default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip28/o32,
280 default-linux/mips/2006.1/ip30/o32
281 </ti>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <th>s390</th>
285 <ti>2006.0</ti>
286 <ti>2004.3</ti>
287 </tr>
288 <tr>
289 <th>sh</th>
290 <ti>default-linux/sh/2006.1</ti>
291 <ti></ti>
292 </tr>
293 <tr>
294 <th>sparc</th>
295 <ti>
296 default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2006.1, default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2006.1/2.4
297 </ti>
298 <ti>
299 default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2006.0, default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2006.0/2.4
300 </ti>
301 </tr>
302 <tr>
303 <th>x86</th>
304 <ti>
305 default-linux/x86/2006.1, default-linux/x86/no-nptl,
306 default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
307 </ti>
308 <ti>
309 default-linux/x86/2006.1/desktop, default-linux/x86/2006.1/server,
310 default-linux/x86/2006.0
311 </ti>
312 </tr>
313 </table>
314
315 </body>
316 </section>
317 </chapter>
318
319 <chapter id="instructions">
320 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
321 <section>
322 <title>Updating to 2006.1</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 If you intend to upgrade to this profile, you should be aware that it expects
327 the system to be set to a Unicode locale by default; specifically that
328 UNICODE="yes" is set in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. For this to work, you must
329 have created a Unicode locale for your system to use. Please read our <uri
330 link="/doc/en/utf-8.xml">UTF-8 guide</uri> to learn how to create the proper
331 locale.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 Alternatively, if you do not wish to set a locale, you should specify
336 UNICODE="no" in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, and re-emerge <c>baselayout</c> (or
337 wait until your next <c>baselayout</c> update) with the <c>-unicode</c> USE
338 flag. You can set <c>-unicode</c> just for <c>baselayout</c>, or you can set it
339 globally for all packages by adding it to your USE variable in
340 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="Optional: removing Unicode support">
344 <comment>(To remove Unicode support just for baselayout)</comment>
345 # <i>echo "sys-apps/baselayout -unicode" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
346 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
347
348 <comment>(To remove Unicode support from your whole system)</comment>
349 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
350 USE="-unicode"
351 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
352 </pre>
353
354 <p>
355 To switch to the 2006.1 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
356 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
357 change your profile.
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Changing to a 2006.1 profile">
361 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
362 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 <p>
366 Please note that the <b>alpha</b>/2006.1, <b>amd64</b>/2006.1 and
367 <b>x86</b>/2006.1 profiles are very minimal. They all have a <c>desktop</c>
368 sub-profile that is likely what you want on a desktop machine.
369 </p>
370
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>Updating to 2006.0</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 To switch to the 2006.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
379 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
380 change your profile.
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption="Changing to a 2006.0 profile">
384 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
385 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
386 </pre>
387
388 <p>
389 <b>alpha</b> - Users that use a 2.4 kernel or don't want to use NPTL should use
390 the default-linux/alpha/no-nptl profile. More information is available in <uri
391 link="/proj/en/releng/release/2006.0/alpha-release-notes.xml">the alpha release
392 notes</uri>.
393 </p>
394
395 <p>
396 <b>ppc</b> - The merge of the ppc32 and ppc64 profiles went forward. The ppc32
397 profile has been changed in a way that offers a minimalistic generic profile
398 for all purposes, located in default-linux/ppc/ppc32. The release-dependent
399 profile is optimized for desktop-usage and located in
400 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0. There are some subprofiles available for G3 and
401 G4 processors, and G3/Pegasos and G4/Pegasos for the Pegasos Open Desktop
402 Workstation. Make sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when
403 migrating to a 2006.0 profile.
404 </p>
405
406 <p>
407 <b>sparc</b> - Upgrading to the <b>2.4</b>-kernel based 2006.0/2.4 profile
408 requires manual user intervention (unmerging java stuff) and an <c>emerge -e
409 world</c> because of the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">gcc
410 upgrade</uri>.<br/>
411 Upgrading to the <b>2.6</b>-kernel based 2006.0 profile which is not considered
412 stable also requires an entry in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> to
413 umask a 2.6 version of <c>gentoo-sources</c> and a full rebuild.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 <b>All other archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
418 specific action needs to be performed.
419 </p>
420
421 </body>
422 </section>
423 <section>
424 <title>Updating to 2005.1</title>
425 <body>
426
427 <p>
428 To switch to the 2005.1 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
429 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
430 change your profile.
431 </p>
432
433 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.1 profile">
434 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
435 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
436 </pre>
437
438 <p>
439 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
440 specific action needs to be performed.
441 </p>
442
443 <p>
444 <b>ppc</b> - With the 2005.1 release, the ppc and ppc64 profiles were merged
445 and a number of subprofiles for specific subarchitectures were created. Make
446 sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when migrating to a
447 2005.1 profile.
448 </p>
449
450 </body>
451 </section>
452 <section>
453 <title>Updating to 2005.0</title>
454 <body>
455
456 <p>
457 With the introduction of 2005.0, several architectures have decided to define
458 additional profiles. Make sure you read the description of said profiles before
459 you decide to migrate to one of them. Most architectures now also default to the
460 2.6 kernel tree where 2.4 was chosen previously.
461 </p>
462
463 <p>
464 Some architectures require a bit more actions to be completed in order to
465 convert from one profile to another. If that is the case, the step-by-step
466 guides are linked from the table.
467 </p>
468
469 <table>
470 <tr>
471 <th>Profile</th>
472 <th>Description</th>
473 <th>Specific Upgrade Guide</th>
474 </tr>
475 <tr>
476 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0</ti>
477 <ti>Default Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
478 <ti></ti>
479 </tr>
480 <tr>
481 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0/2.4</ti>
482 <ti>Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
483 <ti></ti>
484 </tr>
485 <tr>
486 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0</ti>
487 <ti>Default AMD64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
488 <ti></ti>
489 </tr>
490 <tr>
491 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0/no-multilib</ti>
492 <ti>AMD64 2005.0 profile for multilib-disabled system installations</ti>
493 <ti></ti>
494 </tr>
495 <tr>
496 <ti>default-linux/arm/2005.0</ti>
497 <ti>Default ARM 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
498 <ti></ti>
499 </tr>
500 <tr>
501 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0</ti>
502 <ti>Default HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
503 <ti></ti>
504 </tr>
505 <tr>
506 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0/2.4</ti>
507 <ti>HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
508 <ti></ti>
509 </tr>
510 <tr>
511 <ti>default-linux/mips/2005.0</ti>
512 <ti>Default MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
513 <ti></ti>
514 </tr>
515 <tr>
516 <ti>default-linux/mips/cobalt/2005.0</ti>
517 <ti>Cobalt specific MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
518 <ti></ti>
519 </tr>
520 <tr>
521 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/n32/2005.0</ti>
522 <ti>2005.0 profile for n32-supporting MIPS platforms</ti>
523 <ti></ti>
524 </tr>
525 <tr>
526 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/ip28/2005.0</ti>
527 <ti>Indigo2 Impact specific 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
528 <ti></ti>
529 </tr>
530 <tr>
531 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/2005.0</ti>
532 <ti>64-bit MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
533 <ti></ti>
534 </tr>
535 <tr>
536 <ti>default-linux/ppc/2005.0</ti>
537 <ti>Default PPC 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
538 <ti></ti>
539 </tr>
540 <tr>
541 <ti>default-linux/ppc64/2005.0</ti>
542 <ti>Default PPC64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
543 <ti></ti>
544 </tr>
545 <tr>
546 <ti>default-linux/s390/2005.0</ti>
547 <ti>Default S390 2005.0 profile</ti>
548 <ti></ti>
549 </tr>
550 <tr>
551 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0</ti>
552 <ti>Default Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
553 <ti></ti>
554 </tr>
555 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
556 No subprofiles for sparc
557 <tr>
558 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0/2.6</ti>
559 <ti>Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
560 <ti></ti>
561 </tr>
562 -->
563 <tr>
564 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0</ti>
565 <ti>Default Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
566 <ti></ti>
567 </tr>
568 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
569 No subprofiles for sparc
570 <tr>
571 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0/2.6</ti>
572 <ti>Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
573 <ti></ti>
574 </tr>
575 -->
576 <tr>
577 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0</ti>
578 <ti>Default x86 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
579 <ti></ti>
580 </tr>
581 <tr>
582 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</ti>
583 <ti>x86 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
584 <ti></ti>
585 </tr>
586 </table>
587
588 <p>
589 To switch to the selected profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
590 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you change
591 your profile!
592 </p>
593
594 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.0 profile">
595 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
596 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
597 </pre>
598
599 <p>
600 If you are running a Linux 2.4-based system but want to migrate to a 2.6-based
601 kernel, make sure you read our <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">Gentoo
602 Linux 2.6 Migration Guide</uri>.
603 </p>
604
605 </body>
606 </section>
607 <section>
608 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
609 <body>
610
611 <p>
612 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
613 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
614 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
615 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
616 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
617 directory, for instance
618 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
619 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
620 </p>
621
622 <p>
623 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
624 symlink to the new location:
625 </p>
626
627 <warn>
628 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
629 </warn>
630
631 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
632 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
633 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
634 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
635 </pre>
636
637 <p>
638 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
639 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
640 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
641 that if you run <c>emerge --depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
642 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
643 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
644 emerge them.
645 </p>
646
647 <p>
648 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of
649 <c>sys-fs/devfs</c> for newly installed machines. This has no
650 effect on already installed machines, though.
651 </p>
652
653 </body>
654 </section>
655 <section>
656 <title>Updating Portage to Support Cascading Profiles</title>
657 <body>
658
659 <p>
660 Although this section does not seem to integrate well in this upgrading guide,
661 it is quite important. Any profile listed above this section requires a Portage
662 version that supports cascading profiles. However, some obsoleted profiles don't
663 allow the user to upgrade Portage or the user is using a profile that isn't
664 available anymore - any attempt to upgrade Portage will result in a failure.
665 </p>
666
667 <p>
668 To work around this problem, users can set a temporary symbolic link to the
669 <e>obsolete</e> profile, allowing them to upgrade their Portage after which
670 they can continue with the upgrade procedure set forth in this guide. Please
671 substitute <c>&lt;arch&gt;</c> with your respective architecture:
672 </p>
673
674 <pre caption="Updating Portage through the obsolete profile">
675 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
676 # <i>cd /etc</i>
677 # <i>ln -sf ../usr/portage/profiles/obsolete/&lt;arch&gt; make.profile</i>
678 # <i>emerge -n '>=sys-apps/portage-2.0.51'</i>
679 </pre>
680
681 </body>
682 </section>
683 <section>
684 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
685 <body>
686
687 <p>
688 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
689 symlink to the new location:
690 </p>
691
692 <warn>
693 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
694 </warn>
695
696 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
697 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
698 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
699 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
700 </pre>
701
702 <p>
703 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
704 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
705 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
706 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
707 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
708 before.
709 </p>
710
711 <p>
712 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
713 specific action needs to be performed.
714 </p>
715
716 </body>
717 </section>
718 <section>
719 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
720 <body>
721
722 <p>
723 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
724 symlink to the new location:
725 </p>
726
727 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
728 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
729 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
730 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
731 </pre>
732
733 <p>
734 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
735 specific action needs to be performed.
736 </p>
737
738 </body>
739 </section>
740 <section>
741 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
742 <body>
743
744 <p>
745 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
746 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
747 </p>
748
749 </body>
750 </section>
751 </chapter>
752
753 </guide>

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