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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.36 2007/01/10 07:29:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="wolf31o2@gentoo.org">Chris Gianelloni</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
24 <license/>
25
26 <version>2.8</version>
27 <date>2007-05-05</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
31 <section>
32 <title>Philosophy</title>
33 <body>
34
35 <p>
36 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
37 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
38 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
39 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
40 upgrade instructions.
41 </p>
42
43 <p>
44 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
45 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
46 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
47 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
48 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distribution is more
49 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the
50 beginning, Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental
51 updates.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
56 instructions in <uri
57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
58 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
59 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
60 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
61 to be done manually.
62 </p>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 <section>
67 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
68 <body>
69
70 <p>
71 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
72 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
73 There are various reasons:
74 </p>
75
76 <ul>
77 <li>
78 A new release means new Installation CDs with bugfixes and more features.
79 </li>
80 <li>
81 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
82 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
83 with a system that is not outdated.
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
87 are incompatible with previous releases.
88 </li>
89 </ul>
90
91 <p>
92 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
93 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
94 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
99 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
100 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
101 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
106 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
107 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For
108 instance, the default x86 2007.0 profile can be found
109 at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2007.0</path>.
110 The files in the parent directories are part of the profile as well (and
111 are therefore shared by different subprofiles). This is why we call these
112 <e>cascaded profiles</e>.
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
117 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that
118 happens a file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory.
119 The content of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded
120 to"; portage uses this information to automatically warn you when you should
121 update to a new profile.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of
126 new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or
127 <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in
128 the default USE flags or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in
129 system-wide settings.
130 </p>
131
132 </body>
133 </section>
134 </chapter>
135
136 <chapter>
137 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
138 <section>
139 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile
144 then you can safely pretend that it never happened :).
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 If you update your installed packages
149 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
150 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
151 that has been installed using the new release.
152 </p>
153
154 </body>
155 </section>
156 <section>
157 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 If a release (such as 2007.0 for x86) introduces a new profile, you have the
162 choice to migrate to the new profile.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old
167 profile and just update your packages
168 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained
169 in the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes
174 deprecated. When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer
175 plan on supporting it. Using the table below, you can quickly check to
176 see what profiles are currently supported.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
181 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release
182 to release; it depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new
183 profile are.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
188 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
189 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
190 notes. You can also find <uri link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the
191 end of this guide.
192 </p>
193
194 </body>
195 </section>
196 <section>
197 <title>Supported profiles</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 You can view the list of profiles on your architecture officially supported by
202 Gentoo developers when you <c>emerge eselect</c> and then run the following
203 command:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Viewing supported profiles">
207 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
208 </pre>
209
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 </chapter>
213
214 <chapter id="instructions">
215 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
216 <section id="general">
217 <title>General instructions</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <impo>
221 Make sure your Portage is updated before performing any profile changes.
222 </impo>
223
224 <p>
225 First, run <c>emerge eselect</c>. The <c>eselect</c> utility will let you view
226 and select profiles easily, without needing to create or remove symlinks by
227 hand.
228 </p>
229
230 <pre caption="Profile selection with eselect">
231 <comment>(View available profiles)</comment>
232 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
233
234 <comment>(Select the number of your desired profile from the list)</comment>
235 # <i>eselect profile set &lt;number&gt;</i>
236 </pre>
237
238 <p>
239 If you'd still prefer to change profiles manually, then simply do the following:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Changing profiles manually">
243 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
244 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
245 </pre>
246
247 <note>
248 There are <b>desktop</b> and <b>server</b> subprofiles for most architectures.
249 Examine these profiles carefully, as they may serve your needs better than the
250 extremely minimal default profiles.
251 </note>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>Updating to 2007.0 or 2006.1</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 If you intend to upgrade to these profiles, you should be aware that they expect
261 the system to be set to a Unicode locale by default; specifically that
262 UNICODE="yes" is set in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. For this to work, you must
263 have created a Unicode locale for your system to use. Please read our <uri
264 link="/doc/en/utf-8.xml">UTF-8 guide</uri> to learn how to create the proper
265 locale.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 Alternatively, if you do not wish to set a locale, you should specify
270 UNICODE="no" in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, and re-emerge <c>baselayout</c> (or
271 wait until your next <c>baselayout</c> update) with the <c>-unicode</c> USE
272 flag. You can set <c>-unicode</c> just for <c>baselayout</c>, or you can set it
273 globally for all packages by adding it to your USE variable in
274 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption="Optional: removing Unicode support">
278 <comment>(To remove Unicode support just for baselayout)</comment>
279 # <i>echo "sys-apps/baselayout -unicode" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
280 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
281
282 <comment>(To remove Unicode support from your whole system)</comment>
283 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
284 USE="-unicode"
285 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
286 </pre>
287
288 <note>
289 If you are updating to a 2007.0 profile on the Sparc architecture, then you will
290 need to follow the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">GCC Upgrading
291 Guide</uri>, as <c>gcc-4</c> is the default compiler.
292 </note>
293
294 <p>
295 Finally, follow the <uri link="#general">general instructions</uri> for updating
296 your profile.
297 </p>
298
299 </body>
300 </section>
301 <section>
302 <title>Updating to 2006.0</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 To switch to the 2006.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
307 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
308 change your profile.
309 </p>
310
311 <pre caption="Changing to a 2006.0 profile">
312 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
313 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 <b>alpha</b> - Users that use a 2.4 kernel or don't want to use NPTL should use
318 the default-linux/alpha/no-nptl profile. More information is available in <uri
319 link="/proj/en/releng/release/2006.0/alpha-release-notes.xml">the alpha release
320 notes</uri>.
321 </p>
322
323 <p>
324 <b>ppc</b> - The merge of the ppc32 and ppc64 profiles went forward. The ppc32
325 profile has been changed in a way that offers a minimalistic generic profile
326 for all purposes, located in default-linux/ppc/ppc32. The release-dependent
327 profile is optimized for desktop-usage and located in
328 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0. There are some subprofiles available for G3 and
329 G4 processors, and G3/Pegasos and G4/Pegasos for the Pegasos Open Desktop
330 Workstation. Make sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when
331 migrating to a 2006.0 profile.
332 </p>
333
334 <p>
335 <b>sparc</b> - Upgrading to the <b>2.4</b>-kernel based 2006.0/2.4 profile
336 requires manual user intervention (unmerging java stuff) and an <c>emerge -e
337 world</c> because of the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">gcc
338 upgrade</uri>.<br/>
339 Upgrading to the <b>2.6</b>-kernel based 2006.0 profile which is not considered
340 stable also requires an entry in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> to
341 umask a 2.6 version of <c>gentoo-sources</c> and a full rebuild.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 <b>All other archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
346 specific action needs to be performed.
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </section>
351 <section>
352 <title>Updating to 2005.1</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 To switch to the 2005.1 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
357 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
358 change your profile.
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.1 profile">
362 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
363 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
368 specific action needs to be performed.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 <b>ppc</b> - With the 2005.1 release, the ppc and ppc64 profiles were merged
373 and a number of subprofiles for specific subarchitectures were created. Make
374 sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when migrating to a
375 2005.1 profile.
376 </p>
377
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 <section>
381 <title>Updating to 2005.0</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 With the introduction of 2005.0, several architectures have decided to define
386 additional profiles. Make sure you read the description of said profiles before
387 you decide to migrate to one of them. Most architectures now also default to the
388 2.6 kernel tree where 2.4 was chosen previously.
389 </p>
390
391 <p>
392 Some architectures require a bit more actions to be completed in order to
393 convert from one profile to another. If that is the case, the step-by-step
394 guides are linked from the table.
395 </p>
396
397 <table>
398 <tr>
399 <th>Profile</th>
400 <th>Description</th>
401 <th>Specific Upgrade Guide</th>
402 </tr>
403 <tr>
404 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0</ti>
405 <ti>Default Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
406 <ti></ti>
407 </tr>
408 <tr>
409 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0/2.4</ti>
410 <ti>Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
411 <ti></ti>
412 </tr>
413 <tr>
414 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0</ti>
415 <ti>Default AMD64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
416 <ti></ti>
417 </tr>
418 <tr>
419 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0/no-multilib</ti>
420 <ti>AMD64 2005.0 profile for multilib-disabled system installations</ti>
421 <ti></ti>
422 </tr>
423 <tr>
424 <ti>default-linux/arm/2005.0</ti>
425 <ti>Default ARM 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
426 <ti></ti>
427 </tr>
428 <tr>
429 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0</ti>
430 <ti>Default HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
431 <ti></ti>
432 </tr>
433 <tr>
434 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0/2.4</ti>
435 <ti>HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
436 <ti></ti>
437 </tr>
438 <tr>
439 <ti>default-linux/mips/2005.0</ti>
440 <ti>Default MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
441 <ti></ti>
442 </tr>
443 <tr>
444 <ti>default-linux/mips/cobalt/2005.0</ti>
445 <ti>Cobalt specific MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
446 <ti></ti>
447 </tr>
448 <tr>
449 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/n32/2005.0</ti>
450 <ti>2005.0 profile for n32-supporting MIPS platforms</ti>
451 <ti></ti>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/ip28/2005.0</ti>
455 <ti>Indigo2 Impact specific 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
456 <ti></ti>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/2005.0</ti>
460 <ti>64-bit MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
461 <ti></ti>
462 </tr>
463 <tr>
464 <ti>default-linux/ppc/2005.0</ti>
465 <ti>Default PPC 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
466 <ti></ti>
467 </tr>
468 <tr>
469 <ti>default-linux/ppc64/2005.0</ti>
470 <ti>Default PPC64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
471 <ti></ti>
472 </tr>
473 <tr>
474 <ti>default-linux/s390/2005.0</ti>
475 <ti>Default S390 2005.0 profile</ti>
476 <ti></ti>
477 </tr>
478 <tr>
479 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0</ti>
480 <ti>Default Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
481 <ti></ti>
482 </tr>
483 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
484 No subprofiles for sparc
485 <tr>
486 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0/2.6</ti>
487 <ti>Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
488 <ti></ti>
489 </tr>
490 -->
491 <tr>
492 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0</ti>
493 <ti>Default Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
494 <ti></ti>
495 </tr>
496 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
497 No subprofiles for sparc
498 <tr>
499 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0/2.6</ti>
500 <ti>Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
501 <ti></ti>
502 </tr>
503 -->
504 <tr>
505 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0</ti>
506 <ti>Default x86 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
507 <ti></ti>
508 </tr>
509 <tr>
510 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</ti>
511 <ti>x86 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
512 <ti></ti>
513 </tr>
514 </table>
515
516 <p>
517 To switch to the selected profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
518 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you change
519 your profile!
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.0 profile">
523 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
524 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
525 </pre>
526
527 <p>
528 If you are running a Linux 2.4-based system but want to migrate to a 2.6-based
529 kernel, make sure you read our <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">Gentoo
530 Linux 2.6 Migration Guide</uri>.
531 </p>
532
533 </body>
534 </section>
535 <section>
536 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
537 <body>
538
539 <p>
540 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
541 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
542 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
543 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
544 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
545 directory, for instance
546 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
547 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
548 </p>
549
550 <p>
551 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
552 symlink to the new location:
553 </p>
554
555 <warn>
556 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
557 </warn>
558
559 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
560 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
561 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
562 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
563 </pre>
564
565 <p>
566 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
567 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
568 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
569 that if you run <c>emerge --depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
570 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
571 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
572 emerge them.
573 </p>
574
575 <p>
576 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of
577 <c>sys-fs/devfs</c> for newly installed machines. This has no
578 effect on already installed machines, though.
579 </p>
580
581 </body>
582 </section>
583 <section>
584 <title>Updating Portage to Support Cascading Profiles</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 Although this section does not seem to integrate well in this upgrading guide,
589 it is quite important. Any profile listed above this section requires a Portage
590 version that supports cascading profiles. However, some obsoleted profiles don't
591 allow the user to upgrade Portage or the user is using a profile that isn't
592 available anymore - any attempt to upgrade Portage will result in a failure.
593 </p>
594
595 <p>
596 To work around this problem, users can set a temporary symbolic link to the
597 <e>obsolete</e> profile, allowing them to upgrade their Portage after which
598 they can continue with the upgrade procedure set forth in this guide. Please
599 substitute <c>&lt;arch&gt;</c> with your respective architecture:
600 </p>
601
602 <pre caption="Updating Portage through the obsolete profile">
603 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
604 # <i>cd /etc</i>
605 # <i>ln -sf ../usr/portage/profiles/obsolete/&lt;arch&gt; make.profile</i>
606 # <i>emerge -n '>=sys-apps/portage-2.0.51'</i>
607 </pre>
608
609 </body>
610 </section>
611 <section>
612 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
613 <body>
614
615 <p>
616 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
617 symlink to the new location:
618 </p>
619
620 <warn>
621 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
622 </warn>
623
624 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
625 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
626 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
627 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
628 </pre>
629
630 <p>
631 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
632 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
633 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
634 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
635 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
636 before.
637 </p>
638
639 <p>
640 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
641 specific action needs to be performed.
642 </p>
643
644 </body>
645 </section>
646 <section>
647 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
648 <body>
649
650 <p>
651 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
652 symlink to the new location:
653 </p>
654
655 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
656 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
657 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
658 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
663 specific action needs to be performed.
664 </p>
665
666 </body>
667 </section>
668 <section>
669 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
670 <body>
671
672 <p>
673 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
674 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
675 </p>
676
677 </body>
678 </section>
679 </chapter>
680
681 </guide>

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