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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.3 2004/06/01 07:36:12 neysx Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This document explains how to react when a new Gentoo release is announced.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
18 <license/>
19
20 <version>1.2</version>
21 <date>July 1, 2004</date>
22
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>Philosophy</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrade is quite different with respect to
31 the rest of the linux world. Probably you already know that we never got in
32 touch with the "classic" way to upgrade software in our distribution to the
33 latest version: waiting for a new release, downloading it, burning, putting it
34 in the cdrom drive and then following the upgrade instructions.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 You know (you chose Gentoo, after all) that this process is extremely
39 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
40 users from other distributions must share the same feelings, given the
41 popularity and spread among them of tools like apt or apt-rpm, which make it
42 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distibution is more
43 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users, because Gentoo was
44 shaped from the beginning around the concept of fast, incremental updates.
45 </p>
46
47 <p>
48 Ideally, you install once and then do not bother anymore about releases:
49 just follow the instructions in
50 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">Portage and
51 Software</uri> in the
52 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> that explain how to keep
53 your system up to date. While that's the way things go usually, it can
54 happen sometimes that developers push out, together with a new release, an
55 update that touches the basics of the systems. We will consider these cases
56 below, when talking about profiles.
57 </p>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <p>
66 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
67 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?".
68 There are various reasons:
69 </p>
70
71 <ul>
72 <li>
73 A new release means enhanced and more feature-rich LiveCDs.
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
77 choose "the fast way" to install, stage3 + precompiled packages, end up
78 with a system that is not outdated.
79 </li>
80 <li>
81 Finally, a new release may (not frequently) implement some features that
82 are incompatible with previous releases.
83 </li>
84 </ul>
85
86 <p>
87 When a release provides new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
88 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, or simply
89 when it makes tricky changes to some default parameters, we say that it
90 provides a new <e>profile</e>.
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
95 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
96 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
97 mapping for virtual packages.
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
102 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to the subdirectory of
103 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files, for instance
104 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-x86-2004.0</path> (old-style location) or
105 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.0</path> (new-style
106 location). With respect to new-style profile directories, note that also the
107 files in parent directories are part of the profile (and are therefore shared
108 by different profiles).
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
113 as the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that happens a
114 file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory. The content
115 of this file is the name of the profile that should substitute it; portage uses
116 this information to automatically warn you about the new profile.
117 </p>
118
119 <p>
120 There are various reasons that justify the creation of a new profile: the
121 release of new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>
122 or <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in the
123 default USE flags, or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in system-wide
124 settings (such as defining udev to be the default manager for <path>/dev</path>
125 instead of devfs).
126 </p>
127
128 </body>
129 </section>
130 </chapter>
131
132 <chapter>
133 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
134 <section>
135 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
136 <body>
137
138 <p>
139 If a new Gentoo release is announced that does not include a new profile (such
140 as the 2004.1 release for x86), then you can safely pretend that it never
141 happened.
142 </p>
143
144 <p>
145 If you update your installed packages
146 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
147 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
148 that has been installed using the new release.
149 </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 If a release introduces a new profile, you have the choice to migrate to the
159 new profile.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, you can continue to use the old profile
164 and just update your packages
165 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">as explained in
166 the Gentoo Handbook</uri> (or you may want to not update your system at all).
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 However, Gentoo strongly recommends a migration if your profile becomes
171 deprecated and is no more supported by Gentoo developers, that is to say that
172 your profile is not listed anymore in the table below.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
177 perform some actions. Those actions may vary a lot from release to release, it
178 depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new profile are.
179 </p>
180
181 <p>
182 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
183 link, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
184 while doing some voodoo stuff. In every case we will publish the instructions
185 for the migration as part of the release. You can find these instructions also
186 at the end of this guide.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </section>
191 <section>
192 <title>Supported profiles</title>
193 <body>
194
195 <p>
196 The following profiles are officially supported by Gentoo developers:
197 </p>
198
199 <table>
200 <tr>
201 <th>Architecture</th>
202 <th>Most recent profile</th>
203 <th>Other supported profiles</th>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <th>x86</th>
207 <ti>2004.0</ti>
208 <ti>1.4</ti>
209 </tr>
210 <tr>
211 <th>hardened-x86</th>
212 <ti>2004.0</ti>
213 <ti></ti>
214 </tr>
215 <tr>
216 <th>amd64</th>
217 <ti>2004.0</ti>
218 <ti></ti>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>ppc</th>
222 <ti>2004.0</ti>
223 <ti></ti>
224 </tr>
225 <tr>
226 <th>sparc</th>
227 <ti>2004.0</ti>
228 <ti>1.4</ti>
229 </tr>
230 <tr>
231 <th>mips</th>
232 <ti>2004.0</ti>
233 <ti>1.4</ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th>hppa</th>
237 <ti>2004.0</ti>
238 <ti></ti>
239 </tr>
240 </table>
241
242 </body>
243 </section>
244 </chapter>
245
246 <chapter>
247 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
248 <section>
249 <title>Updating from 1.4 to 2004.0 (all archs)</title>
250 <body>
251
252 <p>
253 There are no fundamental changes between 1.4 and 2004.0 profiles. Just point
254 the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link to the new location:
255 </p>
256
257 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile link">
258 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
259 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
260 </pre>
261
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
270 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
271 </p>
272
273 </body>
274 </section>
275 </chapter>
276
277 </guide>

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