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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml,v 1.41 2008/07/06 08:00:29 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Upgrading Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="wolf31o2@gentoo.org">Chris Gianelloni</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 This document explains how new Gentoo releases affect existing installs.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
24 <license/>
25
26 <version>2.11</version>
27 <date>2008-07-06</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Gentoo and Upgrades</title>
31 <section>
32 <title>Philosophy</title>
33 <body>
34
35 <p>
36 Here in Gentoo land, the concept of upgrading is quite different compared to
37 the rest of the Linux world. You probably already know that we never got in
38 touch with the "classic" way of upgrading software: waiting for a new release,
39 downloading it, burning, putting it in the cdrom drive and then following the
40 upgrade instructions.
41 </p>
42
43 <p>
44 You know (being a Gentoo user after all) that this process is extremely
45 frustrating for power users that want to live on the bleeding edge. Even power
46 users from other distributions probably share the same feelings, given the
47 popularity and spread of tools like apt or apt-rpm which make it
48 possible to have quick and frequent updates. However, no distribution is more
49 suited than Gentoo to satisfy these kind of demanding users. From the
50 beginning, Gentoo was designed around the concept of fast, incremental
51 updates.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 Ideally, you install once and never bother with releases: just follow the
56 instructions in <uri
57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">A Portage
58 Introduction</uri> in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri>
59 that explain how to keep your system up to date. While that's the way things
60 usually go, sometimes changes are made to the core system which require updates
61 to be done manually.
62 </p>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 <section>
67 <title>Releases and Profiles</title>
68 <body>
69
70 <p>
71 A recurring question about the Gentoo release process is: "Why roll out new
72 releases frequently, if they are not intended to let users update software?"
73 There are various reasons:
74 </p>
75
76 <ul>
77 <li>
78 A new release means new Installation CDs with bugfixes and more features
79 </li>
80 <li>
81 A new release provides an updated set of GRP packages, so that users that
82 choose "the fast way" to install (stage3 + precompiled packages) end up
83 with a system that is not outdated
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 Finally, a new release may, from time to time, implement some features that
87 are incompatible with previous releases
88 </li>
89 </ul>
90
91 <p>
92 When a release includes new incompatible features, or provides a set of core
93 packages and settings that deeply modify the behavior of the system, we say
94 that it provides a new <e>profile</e>.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 A <e>profile</e> is a set of configuration files, stored in a subdirectory of
99 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, that describe things such as the ebuilds
100 that are considered <e>system</e> packages, the default USE flags, the default
101 mapping for virtual packages, and the architecture on which the system is running.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 The profile in use is determined by the symbolic link
106 <path>/etc/make.profile</path>, which points to a subdirectory of
107 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> which holds the profile files. For
108 instance, the default x86 2008.0 profile can be found
109 at <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default/linux/x86/2008.0</path>.
110 The files in the parent directories are part of the profile as well (and
111 are therefore shared by different subprofiles). This is why we call these
112 <e>cascaded profiles</e>.
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 Profiles obsoleted by new ones are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
117 along with the current ones, but they are marked as deprecated. When that
118 happens a file named <path>deprecated</path> is put in the profile directory.
119 The content of this file is the name of the profile that should be "upgraded
120 to"; Portage uses this information to automatically warn you when you should
121 update to a new profile.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 There are various reasons that a new profile may be created: the release of
126 new versions of core packages (such as <c>baselayout</c>, <c>gcc</c>, or
127 <c>glibc</c>) that are incompatible with previous versions, a change in
128 the default USE flags or in the virtual mappings, or maybe a change in
129 system-wide settings.
130 </p>
131
132 </body>
133 </section>
134 </chapter>
135
136 <chapter>
137 <title>Keeping up with new releases</title>
138 <section>
139 <title>Releases without profile changes</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 If a new Gentoo release does not include a new profile then you can safely
144 pretend that it never happened. :)
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 If you update your installed packages
149 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained in
150 the Gentoo Handbook</uri>, then your system will be exactly the same as one
151 that has been installed using the new release.
152 </p>
153
154 </body>
155 </section>
156 <section>
157 <title>Releases with profile changes</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 If a release (such as 2008.0 for x86) introduces a new profile, you have the
162 choice to migrate to the new profile.
163 </p>
164
165 <p>
166 Naturally, you are not forced to do so, and you can continue to use the old
167 profile and just update your packages
168 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">as explained
169 in the Gentoo Handbook</uri>.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 However, Gentoo strongly recommends updating your profile if it becomes
174 deprecated. When this happens, it means that Gentoo developers no longer
175 plan on supporting it.
176 </p>
177
178 <p>
179 If you decide to migrate to the new profile, then you will have to manually
180 perform the update. The way you update may vary significantly from release
181 to release; it depends on how deep the modifications introduced in the new
182 profile are.
183 </p>
184
185 <p>
186 In the simplest case you only have to change the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
187 symlink, in the worst case you may have to recompile your system from scratch
188 while doing a neat voodoo dance. Migration is usually covered in the release
189 notes. You can also find <uri link="#instructions">instructions</uri> at the
190 end of this guide.
191 </p>
192
193 </body>
194 </section>
195 <section>
196 <title>Supported profiles</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 You can view the list of profiles on your architecture officially supported by
201 Gentoo developers when you <c>emerge eselect</c> and then run the following
202 command:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Viewing supported profiles">
206 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
207 </pre>
208
209 </body>
210 </section>
211 </chapter>
212
213 <chapter id="instructions">
214 <title>Profile updating instructions</title>
215 <section id="general">
216 <title>General instructions</title>
217 <body>
218
219 <impo>
220 Make sure your Portage is updated before performing any profile changes.
221 </impo>
222
223 <p>
224 First, run <c>emerge eselect</c>. The <c>eselect</c> utility will let you view
225 and select profiles easily, without needing to create or remove symlinks by
226 hand.
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Profile selection with eselect">
230 <comment>(View available profiles)</comment>
231 # <i>eselect profile list</i>
232
233 <comment>(Select the number of your desired profile from the list)</comment>
234 # <i>eselect profile set &lt;number&gt;</i>
235 </pre>
236
237 <p>
238 If you'd still prefer to change profiles manually, then simply do the following:
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption="Changing profiles manually">
242 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
243 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <note>
247 There are <b>desktop</b> and <b>server</b> subprofiles for most architectures.
248 Examine these profiles carefully, as they may serve your needs better than the
249 extremely minimal default profiles.
250 </note>
251
252 <note>
253 The <c>developer</c> subprofile is specifically for Gentoo Linux development
254 tasks. It is <e>not</e> meant to help set up general development environments.
255 </note>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 <section>
260 <title>Updating to 2008.0, 2007.0, or 2006.1</title>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 If you intend to upgrade to these profiles, you should be aware that they expect
265 the system to be set to a Unicode locale by default; specifically that
266 UNICODE="yes" is set in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. For this to work, you must
267 have created a Unicode locale for your system to use. Please read our <uri
268 link="/doc/en/utf-8.xml">UTF-8 guide</uri> to learn how to create the proper
269 locale.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 Alternatively, if you do not wish to set a locale, you should specify
274 UNICODE="no" in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, and re-emerge <c>baselayout</c> (or
275 wait until your next <c>baselayout</c> update) with the <c>-unicode</c> USE
276 flag. You can set <c>-unicode</c> just for <c>baselayout</c>, or you can set it
277 globally for all packages by adding it to your USE variable in
278 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Optional: removing Unicode support">
282 <comment>(To remove Unicode support just for baselayout)</comment>
283 # <i>echo "sys-apps/baselayout -unicode" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
284 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
285
286 <comment>(To remove Unicode support from your whole system)</comment>
287 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
288 USE="-unicode"
289 # <i>emerge -a baselayout</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <note>
293 If you are updating to a 2007.0 profile on the Sparc architecture, then you will
294 need to follow the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">GCC Upgrading
295 Guide</uri>, as <c>gcc-4</c> is the default compiler.
296 </note>
297
298 <p>
299 Finally, follow the <uri link="#general">general instructions</uri> for updating
300 your profile.
301 </p>
302
303 </body>
304 </section>
305 <section>
306 <title>Updating to 2006.0</title>
307 <body>
308
309 <p>
310 To switch to the 2006.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
311 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
312 change your profile.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Changing to a 2006.0 profile">
316 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
317 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 <b>alpha</b> - Users that use a 2.4 kernel or don't want to use NPTL should use
322 the default-linux/alpha/no-nptl profile. More information is available in <uri
323 link="/proj/en/releng/release/2006.0/alpha-release-notes.xml">the alpha release
324 notes</uri>.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 <b>ppc</b> - The merge of the ppc32 and ppc64 profiles went forward. The ppc32
329 profile has been changed in a way that offers a minimalistic generic profile
330 for all purposes, located in default-linux/ppc/ppc32. The release-dependent
331 profile is optimized for desktop-usage and located in
332 default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.0. There are some subprofiles available for G3 and
333 G4 processors, and G3/Pegasos and G4/Pegasos for the Pegasos Open Desktop
334 Workstation. Make sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when
335 migrating to a 2006.0 profile.
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 <b>sparc</b> - Upgrading to the <b>2.4</b>-kernel based 2006.0/2.4 profile
340 requires manual user intervention (unmerging java stuff) and an <c>emerge -e
341 world</c> because of the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">gcc
342 upgrade</uri>.<br/>
343 Upgrading to the <b>2.6</b>-kernel based 2006.0 profile which is not considered
344 stable also requires an entry in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> to
345 umask a 2.6 version of <c>gentoo-sources</c> and a full rebuild.
346 </p>
347
348 <p>
349 <b>All other archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
350 specific action needs to be performed.
351 </p>
352
353 </body>
354 </section>
355 <section>
356 <title>Updating to 2005.1</title>
357 <body>
358
359 <p>
360 To switch to the 2005.1 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
361 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you
362 change your profile.
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.1 profile">
366 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
367 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
368 </pre>
369
370 <p>
371 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes in this profile. No
372 specific action needs to be performed.
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 <b>ppc</b> - With the 2005.1 release, the ppc and ppc64 profiles were merged
377 and a number of subprofiles for specific subarchitectures were created. Make
378 sure you choose the correct subprofile for your system when migrating to a
379 2005.1 profile.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 <section>
385 <title>Updating to 2005.0</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 With the introduction of 2005.0, several architectures have decided to define
390 additional profiles. Make sure you read the description of said profiles before
391 you decide to migrate to one of them. Most architectures now also default to the
392 2.6 kernel tree where 2.4 was chosen previously.
393 </p>
394
395 <p>
396 Some architectures require a bit more actions to be completed in order to
397 convert from one profile to another. If that is the case, the step-by-step
398 guides are linked from the table.
399 </p>
400
401 <table>
402 <tr>
403 <th>Profile</th>
404 <th>Description</th>
405 <th>Specific Upgrade Guide</th>
406 </tr>
407 <tr>
408 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0</ti>
409 <ti>Default Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
410 <ti></ti>
411 </tr>
412 <tr>
413 <ti>default-linux/alpha/2005.0/2.4</ti>
414 <ti>Alpha 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
415 <ti></ti>
416 </tr>
417 <tr>
418 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0</ti>
419 <ti>Default AMD64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
420 <ti></ti>
421 </tr>
422 <tr>
423 <ti>default-linux/amd64/2005.0/no-multilib</ti>
424 <ti>AMD64 2005.0 profile for multilib-disabled system installations</ti>
425 <ti></ti>
426 </tr>
427 <tr>
428 <ti>default-linux/arm/2005.0</ti>
429 <ti>Default ARM 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
430 <ti></ti>
431 </tr>
432 <tr>
433 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0</ti>
434 <ti>Default HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
435 <ti></ti>
436 </tr>
437 <tr>
438 <ti>default-linux/hppa/2005.0/2.4</ti>
439 <ti>HPPA 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
440 <ti></ti>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <ti>default-linux/mips/2005.0</ti>
444 <ti>Default MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
445 <ti></ti>
446 </tr>
447 <tr>
448 <ti>default-linux/mips/cobalt/2005.0</ti>
449 <ti>Cobalt specific MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
450 <ti></ti>
451 </tr>
452 <tr>
453 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/n32/2005.0</ti>
454 <ti>2005.0 profile for n32-supporting MIPS platforms</ti>
455 <ti></ti>
456 </tr>
457 <tr>
458 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/ip28/2005.0</ti>
459 <ti>Indigo2 Impact specific 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
460 <ti></ti>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <ti>default-linux/mips/mips64/2005.0</ti>
464 <ti>64-bit MIPS 2005.0 profile</ti>
465 <ti></ti>
466 </tr>
467 <tr>
468 <ti>default-linux/ppc/2005.0</ti>
469 <ti>Default PPC 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
470 <ti></ti>
471 </tr>
472 <tr>
473 <ti>default-linux/ppc64/2005.0</ti>
474 <ti>Default PPC64 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
475 <ti></ti>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <ti>default-linux/s390/2005.0</ti>
479 <ti>Default S390 2005.0 profile</ti>
480 <ti></ti>
481 </tr>
482 <tr>
483 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0</ti>
484 <ti>Default Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
485 <ti></ti>
486 </tr>
487 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
488 No subprofiles for sparc
489 <tr>
490 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc32/2005.0/2.6</ti>
491 <ti>Sparc 32-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
492 <ti></ti>
493 </tr>
494 -->
495 <tr>
496 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0</ti>
497 <ti>Default Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile</ti>
498 <ti></ti>
499 </tr>
500 <!-- http://dev.gentoo.org/~dsd/kernel-2.6.htm
501 No subprofiles for sparc
502 <tr>
503 <ti>default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2005.0/2.6</ti>
504 <ti>Sparc 64-bit 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
505 <ti></ti>
506 </tr>
507 -->
508 <tr>
509 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0</ti>
510 <ti>Default x86 2005.0 profile for 2.6 kernels</ti>
511 <ti></ti>
512 </tr>
513 <tr>
514 <ti>default-linux/x86/2005.0/2.4</ti>
515 <ti>x86 2005.0 profile for 2.4 kernels</ti>
516 <ti></ti>
517 </tr>
518 </table>
519
520 <p>
521 To switch to the selected profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
522 symlink to the new location. Make sure your Portage is updated before you change
523 your profile!
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Changing to a 2005.0 profile">
527 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
528 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/</i>&lt;selected profile&gt;<i> /etc/make.profile</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 If you are running a Linux 2.4-based system but want to migrate to a 2.6-based
533 kernel, make sure you read our <uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">Gentoo
534 Linux 2.6 Migration Guide</uri>.
535 </p>
536
537 </body>
538 </section>
539 <section>
540 <title>Updating to 2004.3</title>
541 <body>
542
543 <p>
544 With the introduction of the 2004.3 profiles, users are not going to see huge
545 modifications of their systems (see below for details). However, Gentoo
546 developers decided to push out this new profile and to deprecate quite a few of
547 the old ones to speed up the adoption of <e>stacked profiles</e>, that is, the
548 profiles that follow the new layout of the <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>
549 directory, for instance
550 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2004.3</path> (supported by
551 Portage 2.0.51 or later).
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 To switch to the 2004.3 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
556 symlink to the new location:
557 </p>
558
559 <warn>
560 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
561 </warn>
562
563 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
564 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
565 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
566 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.3 /etc/make.profile</i>
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 <b>All archs</b> - As said above, there are no big changes introduced in this
571 profile. However, it should be noted that <c>sys-apps/slocate</c> and
572 <c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c> are no longer considered system packages. This means
573 that if you run <c>emerge --depclean</c>, Portage will try to remove them from
574 your system. If you need any of those packages, add them to
575 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path> after the profile switch, or manually
576 emerge them.
577 </p>
578
579 <p>
580 <b>ppc</b> - <c>sys-fs/udev</c> is now the default instead of
581 <c>sys-fs/devfs</c> for newly installed machines. This has no
582 effect on already installed machines, though.
583 </p>
584
585 </body>
586 </section>
587 <section>
588 <title>Updating Portage to Support Cascading Profiles</title>
589 <body>
590
591 <p>
592 Although this section does not seem to integrate well in this upgrading guide,
593 it is quite important. Any profile listed above this section requires a Portage
594 version that supports cascading profiles. However, some obsoleted profiles don't
595 allow the user to upgrade Portage or the user is using a profile that isn't
596 available anymore - any attempt to upgrade Portage will result in a failure.
597 </p>
598
599 <p>
600 To work around this problem, users can set a temporary symbolic link to the
601 <e>obsolete</e> profile, allowing them to upgrade their Portage after which
602 they can continue with the upgrade procedure set forth in this guide. Please
603 substitute <c>&lt;arch&gt;</c> with your respective architecture:
604 </p>
605
606 <pre caption="Updating Portage through the obsolete profile">
607 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
608 # <i>cd /etc</i>
609 # <i>ln -sf ../usr/portage/profiles/obsolete/&lt;arch&gt; make.profile</i>
610 # <i>emerge -n '>=sys-apps/portage-2.0.51'</i>
611 </pre>
612
613 </body>
614 </section>
615 <section>
616 <title>Updating to 2004.2</title>
617 <body>
618
619 <p>
620 To switch to the 2004.2 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
621 symlink to the new location:
622 </p>
623
624 <warn>
625 Don't forget to upgrade Portage <e>before</e> you change your profile!!!
626 </warn>
627
628 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
629 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
630 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
631 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/&lt;arch&gt;/2004.2 /etc/make.profile</i>
632 </pre>
633
634 <p>
635 <b>x86</b> - This profile changes the default X11 implementation from
636 <c>x11-base/xfree</c> to <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c>. This change only touches
637 the <e>default</e> value, and is only relevant for those who have not installed
638 an X server yet. If you already have one installed, then it will not affect
639 you at all; you are free to switch from one X server to the other exactly as
640 before.
641 </p>
642
643 <p>
644 <b>amd64</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
645 specific action needs to be performed.
646 </p>
647
648 </body>
649 </section>
650 <section>
651 <title>Updating to 2004.0</title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 To switch to the 2004.0 profile, point the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
656 symlink to the new location:
657 </p>
658
659 <pre caption="Updating the /etc/make.profile symlink">
660 <comment>substitute &lt;arch&gt; with your arch</comment>
661 # <i>rm /etc/make.profile</i>
662 # <i>ln -s ../usr/portage/profiles/default-&lt;arch&gt;-2004.0 /etc/make.profile</i>
663 </pre>
664
665 <p>
666 <b>All archs</b> - There are no fundamental changes from previous profiles, no
667 specific action needs to be performed.
668 </p>
669
670 </body>
671 </section>
672 <section>
673 <title>Updating from profiles older than 1.4 to 1.4</title>
674 <body>
675
676 <p>
677 The instructions for this upgrade are quite complex, you can find them
678 <uri link="/doc/en/new-upgrade-to-gentoo-1.4.xml">here</uri>.
679 </p>
680
681 </body>
682 </section>
683 </chapter>
684
685 </guide>

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