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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86+raid+lvm2-quickinstall.xml,v 1.27 2011/05/09 19:59:08 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 with Software Raid and LVM2 Quick Install Guide</title>
7
8 <values>
9 <key id="raid+lvm">yes</key>
10 <key id="root">/dev/md3</key>
11 </values>
12
13 <author title="Author">
14 <mail link="neysx"/>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Author">
17 <mail link="swift"/>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 The Quick Install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
23 manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install with software
24 RAID and LVM2 in no time. Users should already have prior experience with
25 installing Gentoo Linux if they want to follow this guide.
26 </abstract>
27
28 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
29 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
30 <license/>
31
32 <version>18</version>
33 <date>2011-05-09</date>
34
35 <chapter>
36 <title>Introduction</title>
37 <section>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
42 installation including LVM2 on top of software RAID. This guide is targeted at
43 experienced users. You need a connection to the Internet to download the stage3
44 and Portage snapshots.
45 </p>
46
47 <impo>
48 New users should read the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/index.xml">Handbook</uri>
49 as it gives a better overview about the installation process. The Quick Install
50 guide is designed for experienced users who just need a checklist to follow.
51 </impo>
52
53 <p>
54 Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
55 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 Mb of RAM and
56 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller configured as JBOD (i.e. two
57 separate hard disks are seen by Gentoo). If you have a "hardware" RAID
58 controller on your motherboard, it is most likely <b>not</b> a hardware
59 controller.
60 </p>
61
62 <pre caption="Test box specs">
63 <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
64 a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
65
66 # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
67 bogomips : 3337.81
68
69 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda /dev/sdb</i>
70 /dev/sda:
71 reads: 1048 MB in 2.00 seconds = 524.00 MB/sec
72 Timing buffered disk reads: 152 MB in 3.01 seconds = 50.50 MB/sec
73
74 /dev/sdb:
75 Timing cached reads: 1048 MB in 2.00 seconds = 524.00 MB/sec
76 Timing buffered disk reads: 152 MB in 3.01 seconds = 50.50 MB/sec
77
78 # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
79 MemTotal: 509248 kB
80 </pre>
81
82 </body>
83 </section>
84 </chapter>
85
86 <chapter>
87 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
88 <section>
89 <include href="gentoo-x86-quickinstall-media.xml"/>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Load the software RAID and LVM2 modules.
97 </p>
98
99 <pre caption="Load RAID and LVM2 modules">
100 livecd ~ # <i>modprobe raid0</i>
101 livecd ~ # <i>modprobe raid1</i>
102 <comment>(raid5, raid6 and raid10 are also available)</comment>
103
104 livecd ~ # <i>modprobe dm-mod</i>
105 </pre>
106
107 <p>
108 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. The device
109 names are likely to be either <path>/dev/sda</path> and <path>/dev/sdb</path>
110 for a SATA or SCSI disks, or <path>/dev/hda</path> and <path>/dev/hdb</path>
111 for IDE disks. The following layout will be used in this guide:
112 </p>
113
114 <table>
115 <tr>
116 <ti/>
117 <th><path>/dev/sda</path></th>
118 <th><path>/dev/sdb</path></th>
119 <th>Type</th>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <th><path>/dev/md1</path></th>
123 <th><path>/boot</path></th>
124 <th><path>/boot</path></th>
125 <ti>Raid-1 (mirroring)</ti>
126 </tr>
127 <tr>
128 <th/>
129 <th>swap</th>
130 <th>swap</th>
131 <ti>Normal partitions</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <th><path>/dev/md3</path></th>
135 <th><path>/</path></th>
136 <th><path>/</path></th>
137 <ti>Raid-1 (mirroring)</ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th><path>/dev/md4</path></th>
141 <th colspan="2">LVM2 volumes</th>
142 <ti>Raid-0 (striped)</ti>
143 </tr>
144 </table>
145
146 <impo>
147 The partition you boot from must not be striped. It may not be raid-5 or
148 raid-0.
149 </impo>
150
151 <note>
152 On the one hand, if you want extra stability, consider using raid-1 (or even
153 raid-5) for your swap partition(s) so that a drive failure would not corrupt
154 your swap space and crash applications that are using it. On the other hand, if
155 you want extra performance, just let the kernel use distinct swap partitions as
156 it does striping by default.
157 </note>
158
159 <pre caption="Create the partitions">
160 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
161 <comment>(Make sure you use type fd and set the bootable flag)</comment>
162
163 <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
164 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
165
166 Disk /dev/sda: 299.9 GB, 299989204992 bytes
167 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36471 cylinders
168 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
169
170 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
171 /dev/sda1 * 1 11 88326 fd Linux raid autodetect
172 /dev/sda2 12 61 401625 82 Linux swap / Solaris
173 /dev/sda3 62 311 2008125 fd Linux raid autodetect
174 /dev/sda4 312 36471 290455200 fd Linux raid autodetect
175
176 <comment>(Partition the second disk exactly as the first)</comment>
177 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sdb</i>
178 </pre>
179
180 <p>
181 Then create the RAID device nodes and devices. Please bear in mind that the
182 <c>/boot</c> and <c>/</c> mount points should use an older metadata format which
183 can be specified by the <c>--metadata=0.90</c> flag:
184 </p>
185
186 <pre caption="Create device nodes and devices">
187 livecd ~ # <i>mknod /dev/md1 b 9 1</i>
188 livecd ~ # <i>mknod /dev/md3 b 9 3</i>
189 livecd ~ # <i>mknod /dev/md4 b 9 4</i>
190
191 livecd ~ # <i>mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 --metadata=0.90 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1</i>
192 mdadm: array /dev/md1 started.
193 livecd ~ # <i>mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 --metadata=0.90 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3</i>
194 mdadm: array /dev/md3 started.
195 livecd ~ # <i>mdadm --create /dev/md4 --level=0 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb4</i>
196 mdadm: array /dev/md4 started.
197
198 <comment>(Wait until all units are ready)</comment>
199 livecd ~ # <i>cat /proc/mdstat</i>
200 Personalities : [raid0] [raid1]
201 md4 : active raid0 sdb4[1] sda4[0]
202 581006592 blocks 64k chunks
203
204 md3 : active raid1 sdb3[1] sda3[0]
205 1959808 blocks [2/2] [UU]
206
207 md1 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
208 88256 blocks [2/2] [UU]
209 </pre>
210
211 <p>
212 Then create the LVM2 volumes in <path>/dev/md4</path>. The following scheme is
213 used as an <b>example</b>:
214 </p>
215
216 <table>
217 <tr>
218 <th>Directory</th>
219 <th>Size</th>
220 <th>File system</th>
221 </tr>
222 <tr>
223 <ti>/usr</ti>
224 <ti>8 GB</ti>
225 <ti>ext3</ti>
226 </tr>
227 <tr>
228 <ti>/usr/portage</ti>
229 <ti>2 GB</ti>
230 <ti>ext2, small block size, many inodes</ti>
231 </tr>
232 <tr>
233 <ti>/usr/portage/distfiles</ti>
234 <ti>4 GB</ti>
235 <ti>ext2, large block size, less inodes</ti>
236 </tr>
237 <tr>
238 <ti>/home</ti>
239 <ti>10 GB</ti>
240 <ti>ext3</ti>
241 </tr>
242 <tr>
243 <ti>/opt</ti>
244 <ti>4 GB</ti>
245 <ti>ext3</ti>
246 </tr>
247 <tr>
248 <ti>/var</ti>
249 <ti>4 GB</ti>
250 <ti>ext3</ti>
251 </tr>
252 <tr>
253 <ti>/var/tmp</ti>
254 <ti>6 GB</ti>
255 <ti>ext2</ti>
256 </tr>
257 <tr>
258 <ti>/tmp</ti>
259 <ti>2 GB</ti>
260 <ti>ext2</ti>
261 </tr>
262 </table>
263
264 <pre caption="Create LVM2 volumes">
265 livecd ~ # <i>vgscan</i>
266 Reading all physical volumes. This may take a while...
267 No volume groups found
268 livecd ~ # <i>vgchange -a y</i>
269 No volume groups found
270
271 <comment>(Create physical volumes, we have only one in our example)</comment>
272 livecd ~ # <i>pvcreate /dev/md4</i>
273 Physical volume "/dev/md4" successfully created
274
275 <comment>(Create volume groups, again, we have only one in our example)</comment>
276 livecd ~ # <i>vgcreate vg /dev/md4</i>
277 Volume group "vg" successfully created
278
279 <comment>(Create logical volumes)</comment>
280 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L8G -nusr vg</i>
281 /dev/cdrom: open failed: Read-only file system
282 Logical volume "usr" created <comment>(Further similar messages not displayed)</comment>
283 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L2G -nportage vg</i>
284 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L4G -ndistfiles vg</i>
285 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L10G -nhome vg</i>
286 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L4G -nopt vg</i>
287 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L4G -nvar vg</i>
288 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L6G -nvartmp vg</i>
289 livecd ~ # <i>lvcreate -L2G -ntmp vg</i>
290
291 <comment>(Display volume groups and logical volumes)</comment>
292 livecd ~ # <i>vgs</i>
293 VG #PV #LV #SN Attr VSize VFree
294 vg 1 8 0 wz--n 554.09G 514.09G
295 livecd ~ # <i>lvs</i>
296 LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Copy%
297 distfiles vg -wi-a- 4.00G
298 home vg -wi-a- 10.00G
299 opt vg -wi-a- 4.00G
300 portage vg -wi-a- 2.00G
301 tmp vg -wi-a- 2.00G
302 usr vg -wi-a- 8.00G
303 var vg -wi-a- 4.00G
304 vartmp vg -wi-a- 6.00G
305 </pre>
306
307 <p>
308 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
309 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems. Initialize swap using <c>mkswap</c> and
310 <c>swapon</c>.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
314 <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
315 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/md1</i>
316
317 <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the root partition)</comment>
318 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/md3</i>
319
320 <comment>(Create file systems on logical volumes)</comment>
321 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -b 4096 -T largefile /dev/vg/distfiles</i>
322 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/vg/home</i>
323 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/vg/opt</i>
324 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -b 1024 -N 200000 /dev/vg/portage</i>
325 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/vg/tmp</i>
326 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/vg/usr</i>
327 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/vg/var</i>
328 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/vg/vartmp</i>
329
330 <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
331 livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; mkswap /dev/sdb2</i>
332 livecd ~ # <i>swapon -p 1 /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon -p 1 /dev/sdb2</i>
333 <comment>(Check that all swap partitions use the same priority)</comment>
334 livecd ~ # <i>swapon -v -s</i>
335 Filename Type Size Used Priority
336 /dev/sda2 partition 401616 0 1
337 /dev/sdb2 partition 401616 0 1
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
342 directories for the other mount points and mount them too.
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
346 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/md3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
347 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
348 livecd gentoo # <i>mkdir boot home usr opt var tmp</i>
349 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/md1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
350 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/usr /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
351 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/home /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
352 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/opt /mnt/gentoo/opt</i>
353 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/tmp /mnt/gentoo/tmp</i>
354 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/var /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
355 livecd gentoo # <i>mkdir usr/portage var/tmp</i>
356 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/vartmp /mnt/gentoo/var/tmp</i>
357 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/portage /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
358 livecd gentoo # <i>mkdir usr/portage/distfiles</i>
359 livecd gentoo # <i>mount /dev/vg/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
360
361 <comment>(Set proper perms on tmp directories)</comment>
362 livecd gentoo # <i>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp /mnt/gentoo/var/tmp</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 </body>
366 </section>
367
368 <section>
369 <include href="gentoo-x86-quickinstall-stage.xml"/>
370 </section>
371
372 <section>
373 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
378 it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
382 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
383
384 real 3m3.110s
385 user 1m2.320s
386 sys 0m34.990s
387 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
388 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
389
390 <comment>(Configure your kernel as usual and make sure the raid and lvm modules you need are
391 compiled in, i.e. <b>not</b> as modules. The same applies to the disk drivers and filesystems.)</comment>
392 Multi-device support (RAID and LVM) --->
393 [*] Multiple devices driver support (RAID and LVM)
394 &lt;*&gt; RAID support
395 &lt; &gt; Linear (append) mode (NEW)
396 &lt;*&gt; RAID-0 (striping) mode
397 &lt;*&gt; RAID-1 (mirroring) mode
398 &lt; &gt; RAID-10 (mirrored striping) mode (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
399 &lt; &gt; RAID-4/RAID-5 mode (NEW)
400 &lt; &gt; RAID-6 mode (NEW)
401 &lt; &gt; Multipath I/O support (NEW)
402 &lt; &gt; Faulty test module for MD (NEW)
403 &lt;*&gt; Device mapper support
404 &lt; &gt; Crypt target support (NEW)
405 &lt; &gt; Snapshot target (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
406 &lt; &gt; Mirror target (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
407 &lt; &gt; Zero target (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
408 &lt; &gt; Multipath target (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
409 &lt; &gt; Bad Block Relocation Device Target (EXPERIMENTAL) (NEW)
410
411 livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
412
413 <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
414 real 5m5.869s
415 user 4m32.320s
416 sys 0m32.930s
417
418 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
419 livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 </body>
423 </section>
424
425 <section>
426 <include href="gentoo-x86-quickinstall-system.xml"/>
427 </section>
428
429 <section id="reboot">
430 <title>Reboot</title>
431 <body>
432
433 <p>
434 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Reboot">
438 livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
439 livecd / # <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/usr{/portage/distfiles,/portage,}</i>
440 livecd / # <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev{/pts,/shm,}</i>
441 livecd / # <i>umount -l /mnt/gentoo{/usr,/var/tmp,/tmp,/var,/opt,/dev,/proc,/home,/boot,}</i>
442 livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
443 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
444 </pre>
445
446 </body>
447 </section>
448
449 <section>
450 <include href="gentoo-x86-quickinstall-after-reboot.xml"/>
451 </section>
452
453 </chapter>
454 </guide>

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