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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.66 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.65 2006/11/02 19:13:02 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.8
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5    
6 neysx 1.52 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 neysx 1.31 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8 swift 1.38
9     <author title="Author">
10 neysx 1.52 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Author">
13 nightmorph 1.67 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 swift 1.1 </author>
15 swift 1.38 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16 swift 1.1
17     <abstract>
18 neysx 1.52 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19     manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20     Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21     want to follow this guide.
22 swift 1.2 </abstract>
23    
24 swift 1.44 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 swift 1.1 <license/>
27 swift 1.2
28 nightmorph 1.67 <version>10</version>
29     <date>2006-11-02</date>
30 neysx 1.52
31     <chapter>
32     <title>Introduction</title>
33     <section>
34     <body>
35    
36     <p>
37     This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38     installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39     stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 nightmorph 1.63 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 neysx 1.52 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46     </p>
47    
48     <pre caption="Test box specs">
49     <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50     a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51    
52     # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 rane 1.55 bogomips : 3337.81
54 neysx 1.52
55     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56     /dev/sda:
57     Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58     Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59    
60     # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61     MemTotal: 509248 kB
62     </pre>
63    
64     </body>
65     </section>
66     </chapter>
67 swift 1.1
68     <chapter>
69 neysx 1.31 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 aaby 1.7 <section>
71 swift 1.38 <title>Installation Media</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75     Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 neysx 1.52 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77     <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78     <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79     installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80     the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 nightmorph 1.59 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2006.1/handbook-x86.xml">2006.1 x86 installation
82 neysx 1.52 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 swift 1.38 </p>
84    
85     <p>
86 neysx 1.52 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 swift 1.38 </p>
88    
89 neysx 1.52 </body>
90     </section>
91     <section>
92     <title>Booting the CD</title>
93     <body>
94    
95 swift 1.38 <p>
96 neysx 1.52 Press
97     <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98     either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99     framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100     option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101     allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102     be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103     properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 neysx 1.62 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 rane 1.55 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 neysx 1.52 </p>
107    
108     <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109     Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110     Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111     boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112     <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113     boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114     </pre>
115    
116     </body>
117     </section>
118     <section>
119     <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120     <body>
121    
122     <p>
123     If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124     You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125     command can help you identify your hardware.
126 swift 1.38 </p>
127    
128 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129     livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130     <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131    
132     <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133     livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134     livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135     </pre>
136    
137 swift 1.38 </body>
138     </section>
139     <section>
140     <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 swift 1.1 <body>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.38 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145     your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146     <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 nightmorph 1.59 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 swift 1.38 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149     then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150     </p>
151    
152     <p>
153     For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 swift 1.44 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 swift 1.38 <c>route</c> manually.
156 swift 1.1 </p>
157    
158     <p>
159 swift 1.44 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 swift 1.38 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161     </p>
162    
163 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164     livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165     </pre>
166    
167     <p>
168     Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 rane 1.55 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 neysx 1.52 and name server.
171     </p>
172    
173     <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174     livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175     livecd root # <i>route add default gw 192.168.1.1</i>
176 nightmorph 1.59 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 neysx 1.52 </pre>
178    
179     <p>
180     The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181     users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182     <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183     </p>
184    
185     </body>
186     </section>
187     <section>
188     <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193     then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194     </p>
195    
196     <pre caption="Start sshd">
197     livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198     * Generating hostkey ...
199     <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200     * starting sshd ... [ok]
201    
202     real 0m13.688s
203     user 0m9.420s
204     sys 0m0.090s
205     </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209     another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210     recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211     use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 rane 1.53 disappear after your first reboot.
213 neysx 1.52 </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Set the root password">
216     livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217     New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219     passwd: password updated successfully
220     </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223     Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224     the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 rane 1.55 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 neysx 1.52 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230     The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231     RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232     Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233     Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234     Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235     </pre>
236    
237 swift 1.38 </body>
238     </section>
239     <section>
240     <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244     Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 neysx 1.52 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246     following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247     as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248     <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249     IDE disk.
250     </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253     livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254    
255     <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256     livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257    
258     Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261    
262     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263     /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264     /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265     /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266     </pre>
267 swift 1.38
268     <p>
269     Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 swift 1.44 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swift 1.38 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272     </p>
273    
274 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275     <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276     livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277    
278     <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 nightmorph 1.60 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
280 neysx 1.52
281     <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282     livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285 swift 1.38 <p>
286     Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287     directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 neysx 1.52 you need them and mount them too.
289 swift 1.38 </p>
290    
291 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292     livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293     livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294     livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295     </pre>
296    
297 swift 1.38 </body>
298     </section>
299     <section>
300     <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301     <body>
302    
303     <p>
304 neysx 1.52 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305     MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 swift 1.38 </p>
307    
308 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309     <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310     livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311     Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312    
313     <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314     livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315     Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316     </pre>
317    
318 swift 1.38 <p>
319 neysx 1.52 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321     unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 swift 1.38 </p>
323    
324 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325     livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326     livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327     <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory
328 nightmorph 1.59 highlight the stage3 of your choice, probably stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2
329 neysx 1.52 and press D to download it)</comment>
330    
331     <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
332     livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
333 nightmorph 1.59 livecd gentoo # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2</i>
334 neysx 1.52 </pre>
335    
336     <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
337     livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
338    
339     real 1m13.157s
340     user 1m2.920s
341     sys 0m7.230s
342     </pre>
343    
344 swift 1.38 <p>
345 neysx 1.52 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
346     a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
347     the latest snapshot and unpack it.
348 swift 1.47 </p>
349    
350 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
351     livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
352     livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
353     <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
354     highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
355    
356     <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
357     livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
358     livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
359     </pre>
360    
361     <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
362     livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
363    
364     real 0m51.523s
365     user 0m28.680s
366     sys 0m12.840s
367     </pre>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371     <section>
372     <title>Chrooting</title>
373     <body>
374    
375 swift 1.47 <p>
376 neysx 1.52 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
377     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
378 swift 1.38 </p>
379    
380 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Chroot">
381     livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
382     livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
383     livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
384     livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
385     livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
386     >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
387     </pre>
388    
389 swift 1.38 </body>
390     </section>
391     <section>
392 neysx 1.52 <title>Set your timezone</title>
393 swift 1.38 <body>
394    
395     <p>
396 neysx 1.52 Set your time zone information by copying the correct file from
397     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> over the <path>/etc/localtime</path> file.
398 swift 1.38 </p>
399    
400 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Copy your timezone file">
401     <comment>(Using Brussels as an example)</comment>
402     livecd / # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
403     livecd / # <i>date</i>
404     Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
405 swift 1.1 </pre>
406    
407 neysx 1.52 </body>
408     </section>
409     <section>
410     <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
411     <body>
412 swift 1.1
413     <p>
414 neysx 1.52 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
415     <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
416     name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
417     files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
418 swift 1.1 </p>
419    
420 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
421     livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
422     livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
423     livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
424     <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
425     livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
426     livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
427     mybox.at.myplace
428     </pre>
429 swift 1.38
430     </body>
431     </section>
432     <section>
433     <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
434     <body>
435    
436 swift 1.1 <p>
437 neysx 1.52 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
438     <c>vanilla-sources</c>), configure it, compile it and copy the
439     <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
440     </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
443 neysx 1.61 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
444 neysx 1.52
445     real 2m51.435s
446     user 0m58.220s
447     sys 0m29.890s
448 neysx 1.61 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
449 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
450     <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
451     livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
452    
453     <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
454     real 3m51.962s
455     user 3m27.060s
456     sys 0m24.310s
457 swift 1.38
458 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
459     livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
460     </pre>
461 swift 1.1
462 swift 1.38 </body>
463     </section>
464     <section>
465 neysx 1.52 <title>Configure the system</title>
466 swift 1.38 <body>
467 swift 1.1
468     <p>
469 neysx 1.52 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
470     <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
471     file systems match your installation.
472 swift 1.1 </p>
473    
474 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example fstab">
475 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
476     livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
477     /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
478     /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
479     /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
480 swift 1.1 </pre>
481    
482     <p>
483 neysx 1.52 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
484     init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
485     to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
486     well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
487     following commands:
488     </p>
489    
490     <pre caption="Configure networking">
491     livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
492     livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
493     livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
494     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
495     <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
496     add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
497     livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
498     <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
499     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
500 swift 1.1 </pre>
501    
502 neysx 1.52 <note>
503 swift 1.44 Emerge <c>pcmcia-cs</c> and add it to the default run level if you need it.
504 neysx 1.52 </note>
505 swift 1.1
506 swift 1.38 <p>
507     Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
508     </p>
509 swift 1.1
510 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set the root password">
511     livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
512     New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
513     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
514     passwd: password updated successfully
515     </pre>
516    
517 swift 1.1 <p>
518 neysx 1.52 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
519 swift 1.38 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>,
520 neysx 1.52 <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and edit any of those files if required.
521 swift 1.1 </p>
522    
523 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
524     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
525     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
526     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
527     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
528     </pre>
529    
530 swift 1.38 </body>
531     </section>
532     <section>
533     <title>Installing System Tools</title>
534     <body>
535    
536     <p>
537 neysx 1.52 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
538     <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
539 swift 1.38 </p>
540 swift 1.1
541 neysx 1.52 <note>
542     Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
543     dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
544     it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
545     you install the MTA of your choice.
546     </note>
547    
548     <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
549     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
550    
551     real 1m52.699s
552     user 1m1.630s
553     sys 0m35.220s
554     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
555     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
556     </pre>
557 swift 1.1
558 swift 1.38 <p>
559     Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
560 neysx 1.52 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>rp-pppoe</c>) if
561     you need any.
562 swift 1.38 </p>
563 swift 1.1
564 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
565     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
566     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
567     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
568     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
569     livecd conf.d # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
570     </pre>
571    
572 swift 1.38 </body>
573     </section>
574     <section>
575     <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
576     <body>
577 swift 1.1
578     <p>
579 neysx 1.52 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
580     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
581     the bootloader you have emerged.
582     </p>
583    
584     <p>
585     <b>1. Using grub</b>
586 swift 1.1 </p>
587    
588 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
589     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
590    
591     real 1m8.634s
592     user 0m39.460s
593     sys 0m15.280s
594     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
595     </pre>
596    
597 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
598 swift 1.9 default 0
599 neysx 1.52 timeout 10
600 swift 1.9
601 neysx 1.52 title=Gentoo
602 swift 1.38 root (hd0,0)
603 neysx 1.52 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
604     </pre>
605    
606     <pre caption="Install grub">
607     livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
608     Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
609    
610     grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
611     Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
612    
613     grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
614     Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
615     Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
616     Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
617     Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
618     succeeded
619     Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
620     grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
621     Done.
622    
623     grub> <i>quit</i>
624     </pre>
625    
626     <p>
627     Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
628     </p>
629    
630     <p>
631     <b>2. Using lilo</b>
632     </p>
633 swift 1.38
634 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
635     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
636 swift 1.38
637 neysx 1.52 real 0m47.016s
638     user 0m22.770s
639     sys 0m5.980s
640     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
641 swift 1.9 </pre>
642    
643 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
644 neysx 1.52 boot=/dev/sda
645 swift 1.9 prompt
646 swift 1.11 timeout=50
647 swift 1.9 default=gentoo
648    
649 neysx 1.52 image=/boot/kernel
650     label=Gentoo
651 swift 1.38 read-only
652 neysx 1.52 root=/dev/sda3
653     </pre>
654 swift 1.38
655 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Install lilo">
656     livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
657     Added Gentoo *
658     </pre>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662     <section id="reboot">
663     <title>Reboot</title>
664     <body>
665    
666     <p>
667     Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
668     </p>
669    
670     <pre caption="Reboot">
671     livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
672     livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
673     livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
674     <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
675     </pre>
676    
677     </body>
678     </section>
679     <section id="after-reboot">
680     <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
681     <body>
682    
683     <note>
684 rane 1.54 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
685     minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
686 neysx 1.52 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
687     also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
688     and the time spent configuring the kernel.
689     </note>
690    
691     <p>
692     Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
693     <c>useradd</c>.
694     </p>
695    
696     <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
697     <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
698     has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
699     $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
700     <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
701     then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
702    
703 rane 1.55 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
704 neysx 1.52 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
705     The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
706     RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
707     Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
708     Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
709     Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
710     </pre>
711    
712     <pre caption="Add a new user">
713     mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
714     mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
715     New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
716     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
717     passwd: password updated successfully
718     </pre>
719    
720     </body>
721     </section>
722     <section>
723     <title>Last configuration touches</title>
724     <body>
725    
726     <p>
727     Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
728     <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
729     <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
730     processes at this point.
731     </p>
732    
733     <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
734     mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
735     mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
736     mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
737     <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
738     mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
739     </pre>
740    
741     <p>
742 rane 1.56 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
743     world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
744     disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
745     following command to define the USE variable:
746 neysx 1.52 </p>
747    
748     <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
749     mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
750     <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
751     disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable userlocales and unicode)</comment>
752     mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran userlocales unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
753     </pre>
754    
755     <p>
756     If you enabled the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag for versions of glibc that still
757     support it, you should edit <path>/etc/locales.build</path> and define the
758     locales you want to build.
759     </p>
760    
761     <p>
762     Later versions of glibc ignore the userlocales USE flag and use
763     <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> instead. If you are upgrading glibc to such a
764     version, you should create <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> <e>and remove</e>
765     <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Check the output of <c>emerge -vpe world</c>
766     to know whether glibc supports the userlocales USE flag.
767     </p>
768    
769     <pre caption="Define locales">
770     mybox ~ # <i>cd /etc</i>
771     <comment>(For versions of glibc with the userlocales USE flag)</comment>
772     mybox etc # <i>nano -w locales.build</i>
773 swift 1.9
774 neysx 1.52 <comment>(For recent versions of glibc, convert locales.build)</comment>
775     mybox etc # <i>grep '^[^#].*' locales.build | sed 's:/: :' >locale.gen</i>
776     mybox etc # <i>rm locales.build</i>
777     mybox etc # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
778 swift 1.1 </pre>
779    
780     <p>
781 neysx 1.52 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
782     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
783     note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
784     broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
785     <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
786 swift 1.1 </p>
787    
788 swift 1.38 <p>
789 neysx 1.52 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
790     deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
791     stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
792     <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
793     </p>
794    
795     <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
796     mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
797     <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
798     CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
799     <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
800     FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
801     <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
802     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
803     </pre>
804    
805     <p>
806     You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
807     latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
808 nightmorph 1.59 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
809     over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
810     a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
811     see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
812     for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
813     world.
814 swift 1.38 </p>
815    
816 neysx 1.52 <p>
817     Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
818     or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
819     also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
820     <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
821     use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
822     </p>
823    
824     <pre caption="Update your packages">
825     <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
826     mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
827    
828 rane 1.58 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
829 neysx 1.52 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
830     <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
831     remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
832     mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
833     <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
834    
835     real 180m13.276s
836     user 121m22.905s
837     sys 36m31.472s
838    
839     <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
840     mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
841    
842     <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
843     update config files you have edited)</comment>
844     mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
845    
846     <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
847     mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
848     real 1m6.495s
849     user 0m42.699s
850     sys 0m10.641s
851    
852     <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
853     mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
854     </pre>
855    
856 swift 1.38 </body>
857     </section>
858     <section>
859 neysx 1.52 <title>What to do next</title>
860 swift 1.38 <body>
861    
862     <p>
863 neysx 1.52 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
864     want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
865     <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
866     installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
867     point.
868 swift 1.38 </p>
869    
870     <p>
871 neysx 1.52 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
872     how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
873 swift 1.38 </p>
874 swift 1.1
875 neysx 1.52 <impo>
876     The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
877     </impo>
878    
879     <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
880     mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
881     <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
882     then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
883     mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
884 rane 1.58 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
885 neysx 1.52 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
886 nightmorph 1.65 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
887 neysx 1.52
888     mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
889     <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
890    
891     real 520m44.532s
892     user 339m21.144s
893     sys 146m22.337s
894     </pre>
895    
896     <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
897     mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
898     <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
899     then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
900     mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
901     <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
902     USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
903 nightmorph 1.65 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
904 neysx 1.52
905     mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
906     <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
907    
908     real 1171m25.318s
909     user 851m26.393s
910     sys 281m45.629s
911     </pre>
912 neysx 1.31
913 aaby 1.7 </body>
914     </section>
915 neysx 1.49 </chapter>
916 swift 1.1 </guide>

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