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Revision 1.77 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun May 20 20:32:22 2007 UTC (7 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.76: +12 -12 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
seems the previous fix was made a little too quickly? reverting previous change.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.76 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.75 2007/05/08 08:00:27 neysx Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.8
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5    
6 neysx 1.52 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 neysx 1.31 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8 swift 1.38
9     <author title="Author">
10 neysx 1.52 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Author">
13 nightmorph 1.67 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 swift 1.1 </author>
15 swift 1.38 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16 swift 1.1
17     <abstract>
18 neysx 1.52 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19     manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20     Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21     want to follow this guide.
22 swift 1.2 </abstract>
23    
24 swift 1.44 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 swift 1.1 <license/>
27 swift 1.2
28 nightmorph 1.77 <version>18</version>
29     <date>2007-05-08</date>
30 neysx 1.52
31     <chapter>
32     <title>Introduction</title>
33     <section>
34     <body>
35    
36     <p>
37     This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38     installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39     stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 nightmorph 1.63 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 neysx 1.52 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46     </p>
47    
48     <pre caption="Test box specs">
49     <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50     a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51    
52     # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 rane 1.55 bogomips : 3337.81
54 neysx 1.52
55     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56     /dev/sda:
57     Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58     Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59    
60     # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61     MemTotal: 509248 kB
62     </pre>
63    
64     </body>
65     </section>
66     </chapter>
67 swift 1.1
68     <chapter>
69 neysx 1.31 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 aaby 1.7 <section>
71 swift 1.38 <title>Installation Media</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75     Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 neysx 1.52 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77     <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78     <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79     installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80     the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 neysx 1.73 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2007.0/handbook-x86.xml">2007.0 x86 installation
82 neysx 1.52 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 swift 1.38 </p>
84    
85     <p>
86 neysx 1.52 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 swift 1.38 </p>
88    
89 neysx 1.52 </body>
90     </section>
91     <section>
92     <title>Booting the CD</title>
93     <body>
94    
95 swift 1.38 <p>
96 neysx 1.52 Press
97     <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98     either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99     framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100     option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101     allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102     be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103     properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 neysx 1.62 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 rane 1.55 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 neysx 1.52 </p>
107    
108     <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109     Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110     Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111     boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112     <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113     boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114     </pre>
115    
116     </body>
117     </section>
118     <section>
119     <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120     <body>
121    
122     <p>
123     If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124     You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125     command can help you identify your hardware.
126 swift 1.38 </p>
127    
128 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129     livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130     <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131    
132     <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133     livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134     livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135     </pre>
136    
137 swift 1.38 </body>
138     </section>
139     <section>
140     <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 swift 1.1 <body>
142    
143     <p>
144 swift 1.38 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145     your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146     <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 nightmorph 1.59 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 swift 1.38 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149     then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150     </p>
151    
152     <p>
153     For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 swift 1.44 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 swift 1.38 <c>route</c> manually.
156 swift 1.1 </p>
157    
158     <p>
159 swift 1.44 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 swift 1.38 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161     </p>
162    
163 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164     livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165     </pre>
166    
167     <p>
168     Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 rane 1.55 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 neysx 1.52 and name server.
171     </p>
172    
173     <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174     livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175 neysx 1.75 livecd root # <i>route add default gw 192.168.1.1</i>
176 nightmorph 1.59 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 neysx 1.52 </pre>
178    
179     <p>
180     The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181     users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182     <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183     </p>
184    
185     </body>
186     </section>
187     <section>
188     <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193     then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194     </p>
195    
196     <pre caption="Start sshd">
197     livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198     * Generating hostkey ...
199     <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200     * starting sshd ... [ok]
201    
202     real 0m13.688s
203     user 0m9.420s
204     sys 0m0.090s
205     </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209     another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210     recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211     use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 rane 1.53 disappear after your first reboot.
213 neysx 1.52 </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Set the root password">
216     livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217     New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219     passwd: password updated successfully
220     </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223     Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224     the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 rane 1.55 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 neysx 1.52 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230     The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231     RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232     Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233     Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234     Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235     </pre>
236    
237 swift 1.38 </body>
238     </section>
239     <section>
240     <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244     Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 neysx 1.52 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246     following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247     as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248     <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249     IDE disk.
250     </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253     livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254    
255     <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256     livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257    
258     Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261    
262     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263     /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264     /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265     /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266     </pre>
267 swift 1.38
268     <p>
269     Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 swift 1.44 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swift 1.38 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272     </p>
273    
274 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275     <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276     livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277    
278     <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 nightmorph 1.74 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
280 neysx 1.52
281     <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282     livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285 swift 1.38 <p>
286     Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287     directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 neysx 1.52 you need them and mount them too.
289 swift 1.38 </p>
290    
291 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292     livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293     livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294     livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295     </pre>
296    
297 swift 1.38 </body>
298     </section>
299     <section>
300     <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301     <body>
302    
303     <p>
304 neysx 1.52 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305     MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 swift 1.38 </p>
307    
308 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309     <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310     livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311     Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312    
313     <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314     livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315     Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316     </pre>
317    
318 swift 1.38 <p>
319 neysx 1.52 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321     unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 swift 1.38 </p>
323    
324 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325     livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326     livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327 neysx 1.73 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory highlight the
328     stage3 of your choice, probably the i686 stage3 and press D to download it)</comment>
329 neysx 1.52
330     <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
331     livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
332 neysx 1.73 livecd gentoo # <i>wget ftp://gentoo.osuosl.org/pub/gentoo/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686*tar.bz2</i>
333 neysx 1.52 </pre>
334    
335     <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
336     livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
337    
338     real 1m13.157s
339     user 1m2.920s
340     sys 0m7.230s
341     </pre>
342    
343 swift 1.38 <p>
344 neysx 1.52 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
345     a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
346     the latest snapshot and unpack it.
347 swift 1.47 </p>
348    
349 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
350     livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
351     livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
352     <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
353     highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
354    
355     <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
356     livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
357     livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
358     </pre>
359    
360     <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
361     livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
362    
363     real 0m51.523s
364     user 0m28.680s
365     sys 0m12.840s
366     </pre>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370     <section>
371     <title>Chrooting</title>
372     <body>
373    
374 swift 1.47 <p>
375 neysx 1.52 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
376     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
377 swift 1.38 </p>
378    
379 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Chroot">
380     livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
381     livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
382     livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
383     livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
384     livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
385     >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
386     </pre>
387    
388 swift 1.38 </body>
389     </section>
390     <section>
391 neysx 1.73 <title>Set your time zone</title>
392 swift 1.38 <body>
393    
394     <p>
395 nightmorph 1.74 Set your time zone information by using the correct listing in
396     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>.
397 swift 1.38 </p>
398    
399 nightmorph 1.71 <pre caption="Setting your timezone">
400 nightmorph 1.74 livecd / # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
401 neysx 1.73 <comment>(Using Brussels as an example)</comment>
402 neysx 1.75 livecd / # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
403 nightmorph 1.74
404 neysx 1.52 livecd / # <i>date</i>
405     Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
406 swift 1.1 </pre>
407    
408 neysx 1.52 </body>
409     </section>
410     <section>
411     <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
412     <body>
413 swift 1.1
414     <p>
415 neysx 1.52 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
416     <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
417     name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
418     files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
419 swift 1.1 </p>
420    
421 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
422     livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
423     livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
424     livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
425     <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
426     livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
427     livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
428     mybox.at.myplace
429     </pre>
430 swift 1.38
431     </body>
432     </section>
433     <section>
434     <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
435     <body>
436    
437 swift 1.1 <p>
438 nightmorph 1.69 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
439     it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
440 neysx 1.52 </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
443 neysx 1.61 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
444 neysx 1.52
445     real 2m51.435s
446     user 0m58.220s
447     sys 0m29.890s
448 neysx 1.61 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
449 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
450     <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
451     livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
452    
453     <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
454     real 3m51.962s
455     user 3m27.060s
456     sys 0m24.310s
457 swift 1.38
458 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
459     livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
460     </pre>
461 swift 1.1
462 swift 1.38 </body>
463     </section>
464     <section>
465 neysx 1.52 <title>Configure the system</title>
466 swift 1.38 <body>
467 swift 1.1
468     <p>
469 neysx 1.52 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
470     <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
471     file systems match your installation.
472 swift 1.1 </p>
473    
474 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example fstab">
475 neysx 1.52 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
476     livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
477     /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
478     /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
479     /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
480 swift 1.1 </pre>
481    
482     <p>
483 neysx 1.52 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
484     init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
485     to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
486     well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
487     following commands:
488     </p>
489    
490     <pre caption="Configure networking">
491     livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
492     livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
493 nightmorph 1.74 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
494 neysx 1.52 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
495     <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
496     add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
497     livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
498     <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
499     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
500 swift 1.1 </pre>
501    
502 neysx 1.52 <note>
503 nightmorph 1.70 Emerge <c>pcmciautils</c> if you need support for PCMCIA cards.
504 neysx 1.52 </note>
505 swift 1.1
506 swift 1.38 <p>
507     Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
508     </p>
509 swift 1.1
510 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Set the root password">
511     livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
512     New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
513     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
514     passwd: password updated successfully
515     </pre>
516    
517 swift 1.1 <p>
518 nightmorph 1.77 Edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to define the time zone you used
519     previously.
520     </p>
521    
522     <pre caption="Edit /etc/conf.d/clock">
523     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
524     TIMEZONE="Europe/Brussels"
525     </pre>
526    
527     <p>
528 neysx 1.73 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
529     <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> and edit any of
530     those files if required.
531 swift 1.1 </p>
532    
533 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
534     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
535     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
536     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
537     </pre>
538    
539 swift 1.38 </body>
540     </section>
541     <section>
542     <title>Installing System Tools</title>
543     <body>
544    
545     <p>
546 neysx 1.52 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
547     <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
548 swift 1.38 </p>
549 swift 1.1
550 neysx 1.52 <note>
551     Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
552     dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
553     it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
554     you install the MTA of your choice.
555     </note>
556    
557     <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
558     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
559    
560     real 1m52.699s
561     user 1m1.630s
562     sys 0m35.220s
563     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
564     livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
565     </pre>
566 swift 1.1
567 swift 1.38 <p>
568     Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
569 nightmorph 1.70 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>ppp</c>) if you
570     need any.
571 swift 1.38 </p>
572 swift 1.1
573 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
574 neysx 1.75 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
575     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
576     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
577     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
578     livecd conf.d # <i>emerge ppp</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
579 neysx 1.52 </pre>
580    
581 swift 1.38 </body>
582     </section>
583     <section>
584     <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
585     <body>
586 swift 1.1
587     <p>
588 neysx 1.52 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
589     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
590     the bootloader you have emerged.
591     </p>
592    
593     <p>
594     <b>1. Using grub</b>
595 swift 1.1 </p>
596    
597 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
598     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
599    
600     real 1m8.634s
601     user 0m39.460s
602     sys 0m15.280s
603     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
604     </pre>
605    
606 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
607 swift 1.9 default 0
608 neysx 1.52 timeout 10
609 swift 1.9
610 neysx 1.52 title=Gentoo
611 swift 1.38 root (hd0,0)
612 neysx 1.52 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
613     </pre>
614    
615     <pre caption="Install grub">
616     livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
617     Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
618    
619     grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
620     Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
621    
622     grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
623     Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
624     Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
625     Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
626     Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
627     succeeded
628     Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
629     grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
630     Done.
631    
632     grub> <i>quit</i>
633     </pre>
634    
635     <p>
636     Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
637     </p>
638    
639     <p>
640     <b>2. Using lilo</b>
641     </p>
642 swift 1.38
643 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
644     livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
645 swift 1.38
646 neysx 1.52 real 0m47.016s
647     user 0m22.770s
648     sys 0m5.980s
649     livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
650 swift 1.9 </pre>
651    
652 swift 1.38 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
653 neysx 1.52 boot=/dev/sda
654 swift 1.9 prompt
655 swift 1.11 timeout=50
656 swift 1.9 default=gentoo
657    
658 neysx 1.52 image=/boot/kernel
659     label=Gentoo
660 swift 1.38 read-only
661 neysx 1.52 root=/dev/sda3
662     </pre>
663 swift 1.38
664 neysx 1.52 <pre caption="Install lilo">
665     livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
666     Added Gentoo *
667     </pre>
668    
669     </body>
670     </section>
671     <section id="reboot">
672     <title>Reboot</title>
673     <body>
674    
675     <p>
676     Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
677     </p>
678    
679     <pre caption="Reboot">
680     livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
681     livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
682     livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
683     <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
684     </pre>
685    
686     </body>
687     </section>
688     <section id="after-reboot">
689     <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
690     <body>
691    
692     <note>
693 rane 1.54 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
694     minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
695 neysx 1.52 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
696     also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
697     and the time spent configuring the kernel.
698     </note>
699    
700     <p>
701     Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
702     <c>useradd</c>.
703     </p>
704    
705     <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
706     <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
707     has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
708     $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
709     <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
710     then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
711    
712 rane 1.55 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
713 neysx 1.52 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
714     The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
715     RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
716     Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
717     Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
718     Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
719     </pre>
720    
721     <pre caption="Add a new user">
722     mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
723     mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
724     New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
725     Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
726     passwd: password updated successfully
727     </pre>
728    
729     </body>
730     </section>
731     <section>
732     <title>Last configuration touches</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736     Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
737     <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
738     <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
739     processes at this point.
740     </p>
741    
742     <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
743     mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
744     mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
745     mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
746     <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
747     mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
748     </pre>
749    
750     <p>
751 rane 1.56 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
752     world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
753     disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
754     following command to define the USE variable:
755 neysx 1.52 </p>
756    
757     <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
758     mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
759     <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
760 nightmorph 1.70 disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable unicode)</comment>
761     mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
762 neysx 1.52 </pre>
763    
764     <p>
765 nightmorph 1.70 Recent versions of glibc use <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> to define locale
766 nightmorph 1.72 settings.
767 neysx 1.52 </p>
768    
769     <pre caption="Define locales">
770 neysx 1.73 mybox ~ # <i>cd /etc</i>
771     mybox etc # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
772 swift 1.1 </pre>
773    
774     <p>
775 neysx 1.52 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
776     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
777     note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
778     broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
779     <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
780 swift 1.1 </p>
781    
782 swift 1.38 <p>
783 neysx 1.52 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
784     deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
785     stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
786     <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
787     </p>
788    
789     <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
790     mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
791     <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
792     CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
793     <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
794     FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
795     <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
796     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
797     </pre>
798    
799     <p>
800     You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
801     latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
802 nightmorph 1.59 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
803     over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
804     a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
805     see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
806     for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
807     world.
808 swift 1.38 </p>
809    
810 neysx 1.52 <p>
811     Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
812     or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
813     also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
814     <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
815     use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
816     </p>
817    
818     <pre caption="Update your packages">
819     <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
820     mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
821    
822 rane 1.58 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
823 neysx 1.52 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
824     <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
825     remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
826     mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
827     <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
828    
829     real 180m13.276s
830     user 121m22.905s
831     sys 36m31.472s
832    
833     <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
834     mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
835    
836     <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
837     update config files you have edited)</comment>
838     mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
839    
840     <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
841     mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
842     real 1m6.495s
843     user 0m42.699s
844     sys 0m10.641s
845    
846     <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
847     mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
848     </pre>
849    
850 swift 1.38 </body>
851     </section>
852     <section>
853 neysx 1.52 <title>What to do next</title>
854 swift 1.38 <body>
855    
856     <p>
857 neysx 1.52 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
858     want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
859     <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
860     installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
861     point.
862 swift 1.38 </p>
863    
864     <p>
865 neysx 1.52 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
866     how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
867 swift 1.38 </p>
868 swift 1.1
869 neysx 1.52 <impo>
870     The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
871     </impo>
872    
873     <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
874     mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
875     <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
876     then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
877     mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
878 rane 1.58 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
879 neysx 1.52 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
880 nightmorph 1.65 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
881 neysx 1.52
882     mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
883     <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
884    
885     real 520m44.532s
886     user 339m21.144s
887     sys 146m22.337s
888     </pre>
889    
890     <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
891     mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
892     <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
893     then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
894     mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
895     <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
896     USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
897 nightmorph 1.65 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
898 neysx 1.52
899     mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
900     <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
901    
902     real 1171m25.318s
903     user 851m26.393s
904     sys 281m45.629s
905     </pre>
906 neysx 1.31
907 aaby 1.7 </body>
908     </section>
909 neysx 1.49 </chapter>
910 swift 1.1 </guide>

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