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Gentoo x86 Quick Installation Guide

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <guide link="/doc/en/quickinstall.xml">
3 <title>Gentoo Linux Install Reference</title>
4 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
5 <author title="Editor">
6 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
7 </author>
8
9 <abstract>
10 The Quick install reference covers all details of the install process in a
11 non-verbose manner. Users should already have prior experience with
12 installing gentoo linux if they want to follow this guide.</abstract>
13 <license/>
14 <version>1.0</version>
15 <date>October 9, 2003</date>
16
17 <chapter>
18 <title>Quick Install Reference</title>
19 <body>
20
21 <p>
22 The installation ISOs are on the <uri link=
23 "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">Gentoo Mirrors</uri>. Detailed
24 descriptions of the different CDs are available in the <uri
25 link="http://store.gentoo.org">Gentoo Store</uri>. CD 1 contains
26 everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly and without a
27 connection to the Internet. CD2 is optional and contains pre-compiled packages
28 such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, Mozilla, Evolution and more.
29 </p>
30
31 <p>
32 Boot from the first Gentoo CD. Press &lt;F1&gt; and/or &lt;F2&gt; to
33 see what boot options are available. Press &lt;ENTER&gt; at the bootscreen to
34 continue with the default kernel. You'll eventually receive a prompt.
35 </p>
36
37 <pre caption="Beginning settings">
38 # <i>date</i> (Make sure your time and date is correct. If wrong, set it with <i>date MMDDhhmmCCYY</i> )
39 # <i>modprobe module_name</i> (Optional - Load any necessary modules)
40 # <i>net-setup eth0</i> (Configure the network)
41 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i> (Partition your drive)
42 </pre>
43
44 <p>
45 The recommended setup is a 64 meg boot volume with ext3, a swap partition
46 twice the size of your available RAM, and the rest for your root partition
47 using ReiserFS.
48 </p>
49
50 <p>
51 Initialise your partitions using <c>mke2fs</c> (Ext2), <c>mke2fs
52 -j</c> (Ext3), <c>mkreiserfs</c> (ReiserFS), <c>mkfs.xfs</c> (XFS),
53 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> (JFS) and <c>mkswap</c> (swap partition). For instance:
54 <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 Continue by mounting the partitions and extracting the appropriate stage
59 file.
60 </p>
61
62 <pre caption="Preparing the Installation">
63 (Activate the swap partition) # <i>swapon /dev/hdax</i>
64 (Mount the root partition) # <i>mount /dev/hdax /mnt/gentoo</i>
65 (Create the boot mountpoint) # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
66 (Mount the boot partition) # <i>mount /dev/hdax /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
67 (Go to the mountpoint) # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
68 (Extract a stage tarball...) # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage?-*.tar.bz2</i>
69 (<comment>or</comment> download the latest tarball...) # <i>links http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
70 ( ... and extract) # <i>tar -xvjpf stage*</i>
71 (GRP-only: unpack a portage tree) # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-*.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
72 (GRP-only: copy over distfiles) # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
73 (GRP-only: copy over packages) # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
74 (Select a mirror) # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
75 (Copy over nameserver information) # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
76 (Mount the proc filesystem) # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
77 (Chroot into the new environment) # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
78 (Load the necessary variables) # <i>env-update; source /etc/profile</i>
79 (Network-only, non-GRP: update Portage) # <i>emerge sync</i>
80 </pre>
81
82 <p>
83 Now we install Gentoo:
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption = "Installing Gentoo">
87 (Change USE, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. Stage1 can also change CHOST) # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
88 (Stage1 only: bootstrap system) # <i>cd /usr/portage; scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
89 (Stage1, Stage2 only: install base system) # <i>emerge system</i>
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Next we set up the necessary information:
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption = "Setting up Configuration Files">
97 (Set timezone information) # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
98 (Edit fstab file) # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
99 </pre>
100
101 <p>
102 Use the following as a <e>template</e> (don't copy verbatim) for
103 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
107 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
108 /dev/hdax /boot ext3 noauto,noatime 1 2
109 /dev/hdax / reiserfs noatime 0 1
110 /dev/hdax none swap sw 0 0
111 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user 0 0
112 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
113 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
114 /dev/hdax /mnt/dosc ntfs ro,noatime,umask=0222 0 0
115 </pre>
116
117 <p>
118 Continue by installing the Linux kernel:
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption="Installing the Kernel">
122 (Install the kernel sources) # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
123 (Configure your kernel using genkernel...) # <i>emerge -k genkernel; genkernel</i>
124 (<comment>or</comment> (1) manually build your kernel) # <i>cd /usr/src/linux; make menuconfig;</i>
125 ( (2) Include VM fs, /proc fs, /dev fs, /dev fs auto mount at boot)
126 ( (3) Compile your kernel) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
127 ( (4) Copy over the kernel) # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot; cp System.map /boot</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 Now install other tools you might want:
132 </p>
133
134 <pre caption = "Install important system tools">
135 (Install system logger; choice: sysklogd, metalog, msyslog, syslog-ng) # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng </i>
136 (Have the systemlogger automatically started at boot) # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
137 (Install cron daemon; choice: vcron, dcron, fcron) # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
138 (Have the cron daemon automatically started at boot) # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
139 (genkernel users only: install hotplug) # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
140 (genkernel users only: have hotplug automatically started at boot) # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
141 (Non-ext2,ext3 users only; choice: reiserfsprogs, xfsprogs, jfsutils) # <i>emerge -k reiserfsprogs</i>
142 </pre>
143
144 <p>
145 If you need specialised kernel ebuilds, now is a good time to install them:
146 </p>
147
148 <pre caption = "Install Specialised Kernel Ebuilds">
149 # <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> (or <i>emu10k1</i>, <i>nforce-net</i>, <i>nforce-audio</i>, <i>e100</i>, <i>e1000</i>, <i>ati-drivers</i>, <i>rp-pppoe</i>)
150 # <i>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</i> (for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards)
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 Finalise the settings for your Gentoo system:
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption = "Finalise the Configuration Settings">
158 (Set root password) # <i>passwd</i>
159 (Create a user) # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
160 (Set password for that user) # <i>passwd your_user</i>
161 (Set the system hostname) # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
162 (Set the system domainname) # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
163 (Set the hostsfile, at least set "127.0.0.1 mymachine") # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
164 </pre>
165
166 <pre caption = "Set up Networking">
167 (Setup networking; dhcp-users should set iface_eth0="dhcp") # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
168 (List modules to be loaded at startup) # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
169 (Configure basic system settings; follow comments) # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
170 (Non-PCMCIA only: start networking automatically at boot) # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
171 (Only if you have multiple network interfaces:)
172 (1) Create initscripts for each interface) # <i>ln -s /etc/init.d/net.eth0 /etc/init.d/net.ethx</i>
173 (2) Automatically start at boot if no PCMCIA) # <i>rc-update add net.ethx default</i>
174 (PCMCIA only: verify /etc/conf.d/pcmcia and load PCMCIA at boot) # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 Now install a bootloader. Left is for grub, right for lilo:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption = "Install and Configure a bootloader">
182 # <i>emerge -k grub</i> | # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
183 # <i>grub</i> | # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
184 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> (Boot partition) | boot=/dev/hda
185 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> (Install on MBR) | prompt
186 grub&gt; <i>quit</i> | timeout=50
187 # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i> | default=gentoo
188 default 0 |
189 timeout 15 | <comment># Genkernel only:</comment>
190 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz | image=/boot/kernel-<comment>&lt;kernel version&gt;</comment>
191 | root=/dev/hda3
192 title=Gentoo Linux | label=gentoo
193 root (hd0,0) |
194 <comment># Genkernel only:</comment> | <comment># Non-genkernel only:</comment>
195 kernel (hd0,0)/kernel-<comment>&lt;kernel version&gt;</comment> root=/dev/hda3 | image=/boot/bzImage
196 initrd (hd0,0)/initrd-<comment>&lt;kernel version&gt;</comment> | root=/dev/hda3
197 <comment># Non-genkernel only:</comment> | label=gentoo
198 kernel (hd0,0)/bzImage |
199 | <comment># For dualbooting:</comment>
200 <comment># For dualbooting:</comment> | other=/dev/hda<comment>X</comment>
201 title=Windows XP | label=windows
202 root (hd0,5) |
203 chainloader (hd0,5)+1 | # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
204 </pre>
205
206 <p>
207 Now unmount all partitions and reboot into your new system:
208 </p>
209
210 <pre caption="Finishing off and installing GUI">
211 (Updating configuration files) # <i>etc-update</i>
212 (Exiting the chroot) # <i>exit; cd /</i>
213 (Unmounting partitions) # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo</i>
214 (Reboot; Remove the install CD from the tray) # <i>reboot</i>
215 (After booting:)
216 (ADSL-users only) # <i>adsl-setup</i>
217 (GRP-users only, optional CD2 usage)
218 ( (1) Mount CD2) # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
219 ( (2) Copy over packages) # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
220 ( (3) Install extra software) # <i>emerge -k xfree gnome kde mozilla openoffice-bin</i>
221 ( (4) Configure your Xserver) # <i>/usr/X11R6/bin/xf86config</i>
222 </pre>
223
224 <p>
225 You can get more information from the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">Gentoo Documentation</uri>.
226 </p>
227 </body></chapter>
228
229 </guide>

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