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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.43 2005/08/01 12:12:22 swift Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
13
14 <abstract>
15 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a
16 non-verbose manner. Users should already have prior experience with
17 installing Gentoo Linux if they want to follow this guide.
18 </abstract>
19
20 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22 <license/>
23
24 <version>2.4</version>
25 <date>2005-08-04</date>
26
27 <chapter>
28 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
29 <section>
30 <title>Installation Media</title>
31 <body>
32
33 <p>
34 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
35 You can find the ISOs in
36 <path>releases/&lt;architecture&gt;/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path>. The
37 <e>minimal</e> installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations;
38 with the <e>universal</e> installation CD you can perform a network less
39 installation as well.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it. Press
44 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. Once booted,
45 you need to start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script if you need PCMCIA support.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 The installation CDs allow you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
50 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
51 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links2</c>.
52 </p>
53
54 </body>
55 </section>
56 <section>
57 <title>Network Configuration</title>
58 <body>
59
60 <p>
61 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
62 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
63 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
64 <c>adsl-setup</c> and <c>adsl-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
65 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
66 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
71 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
72 <c>route</c> manually.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
77 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
88 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83).
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
93 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
94 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
99 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
100 you need them.
101 </p>
102
103 </body>
104 </section>
105 <section>
106 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
107 <body>
108
109 <p>
110 First make sure your date is set correctly using <c>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Next,
111 download a stage from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>
112 or use the one available on the installation CD
113 (<path>/mnt/cdrom/stages</path>). Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and unpack the
114 stage using <c>tar&nbsp;-xvjpf&nbsp;&lt;stage&nbsp;tarball&gt;</c>.
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 Install a Portage snapshot if you are performing a network less installation: go
119 to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and run
120 <c>tar&nbsp;-xvjf&nbsp;/mnt/cdrom/snapshots/&lt;snapshot&gt;</c>. Other users
121 can download a portage snapshot and install it likewise.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 Edit <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> to suit your needs (USE flag, CFLAGS
126 and CXXFLAGS). You can use the <c>nano</c> editor for this.
127 </p>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>Installing the Gentoo Base System</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <p>
136 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system first, copy over the
137 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file and then chroot into your Gentoo
138 environment.
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Preparing and chrooting">
142 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
143 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
144 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
145 # <i>env-update</i> &amp;&amp; <i>source /etc/profile</i>
146 </pre>
147
148 <p>
149 If you are not running a network less installation, issue <c>emerge --sync</c> to
150 update your Portage tree.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 Next, make sure <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to the right profile. The
155 default one should suffice for most users; sub profiles are available for
156 different kernels (like <path>2.4/</path> for 2.4-kernel based profiles). Change
157 the profile using <c>ln -sf</c>.
158 </p>
159
160 <ul>
161 <li>
162 Bootstrapping (not available for network less installations) happens using
163 <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c> in the <path>/usr/portage</path> directory.
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 System installation (not available for network less installations) happens
167 using <c>emerge&nbsp;-e&nbsp;system</c> (or <c>-N</c> if you haven't
168 altered the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS).
169 </li>
170 </ul>
171
172 <p>
173 Stage3 users (except those performing a network less installation) need to
174 upgrade the baselayout package:
175 </p>
176
177 <pre caption="Upgrading baselayout">
178 # <i>CONFIG_PROTECT="-*" emerge baselayout</i>
179 </pre>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section>
184 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 Set your time zone information by changing the <path>/etc/localtime</path>
189 symbolic link to the correct location in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> using
190 <c>ln -sf</c>.
191 </p>
192
193 <p>
194 Install a kernel source (<c>gentoo-sources</c> and <c>vanilla-sources</c> are
195 available for network less installations) and configure it using <c>make
196 menuconfig</c> followed by <c>make&nbsp;&amp;&amp;make&nbsp;modules_install</c>
197 inside <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. Copy the <path>arch/i386/bzImage</path> file
198 over to <path>/boot</path>. You can also <c>emerge&nbsp;genkernel</c>
199 and use <c>genkernel&nbsp;--udev&nbsp;all</c>.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 Genkernel users will need to <c>emerge&nbsp;coldplug</c> and
204 <c>rc-update&nbsp;add&nbsp;coldplug&nbsp;default</c>.
205 </p>
206
207 </body>
208 </section>
209 <section>
210 <title>Configuring the System</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path>; an example follows:
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="Example fstab">
218 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
219 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
220 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
221 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
222 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
223 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
224 </pre>
225
226 <p>
227 Edit <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and <path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path>,
228 run <c>rc-update&nbsp;add&nbsp;domainname&nbsp;default</c> and edit
229 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> to
230 configure your network. Add the <c>net.eth0</c> init script to the default
231 run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them to the <c>net.eth0</c>
232 init script and add them to the default run level as well.
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 Edit <path>/etc/hosts</path>; examples are given below:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Example /etc/hosts">
240 <comment>(For static IPs)</comment>
241 127.0.0.1 localhost
242 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
243 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
244 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
245
246 <comment>(For a dynamic IP)</comment>
247 127.0.0.1 localhost.homenetwork tux localhost
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 Emerge <c>pcmcia-cs</c> and add it to the default run level if you need it.
252 </p>
253
254 <p>
255 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 Set the necessary system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
260 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>,
261 <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>.
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 <section>
267 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 2.4 kernel users need to <c>emerge&nbsp;--unmerge&nbsp;udev</c> and
272 <c>emerge&nbsp;devfsd</c>.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and add it to the default
277 run level. Do the same for a cron daemon like <c>vixie-cron</c> (optional).
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
282 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>rp-pppoe</c>).
283 </p>
284
285 </body>
286 </section>
287 <section>
288 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Edit <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or
293 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your likings. Below you will find an example for
294 each.
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
298 default 0
299 timeout 30
300 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
301
302 <comment># genkernel users</comment>
303 title=Gentoo Linux 2.6.11-r3
304 root (hd0,0)
305 kernel /kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3 root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev
306 initrd /initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
307
308 <comment># non-genkernel users (no initrd)</comment>
309 title=Gentoo Linux 2.6.11 r3
310 root (hd0,0)
311 kernel /kernel-2.6.11-gentoo-r3 root=/dev/hda3
312
313 <comment># Only in case you want to dual-boot</comment>
314 title=Windows XP
315 root (hd0,5)
316 makeactive
317 chainloader +1
318 </pre>
319
320 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
321 boot=/dev/hda
322 prompt
323 timeout=50
324 default=gentoo
325
326 <comment># For non-genkernel users</comment>
327 image=/boot/kernel-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
328 label=gentoo
329 read-only
330 root=/dev/hda3
331
332 <comment># For genkernel users</comment>
333 image=/boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
334 label=gentoo
335 read-only
336 root=/dev/ram0
337 append="init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev"
338 initrd=/boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
339
340 <comment># For dual-booting</comment>
341 other=/dev/hda6
342 label=windows
343 </pre>
344
345 <p>
346 GRUB users need to install GRUB in the MBR using
347 <c>grub-install&nbsp;/dev/hda</c> after copying <path>/proc/mounts</path> to
348 <path>/etc/mtab</path>. LILO users need to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c>.
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for day-to-day use using
363 <c>useradd&nbsp;-m&nbsp;-G&nbsp;&lt;groups&gt;&nbsp;&lt;username&gt;</c>.
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 If you performed a network less installation, mount the packages CD at
368 <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and <c>export&nbsp;PKGDIR="/mnt/cdrom"</c> after which
369 you can <c>emerge&nbsp;-k&nbsp;&lt;package&gt;</c> to install additional
370 software like <c>kde</c>.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 Thanks for installing Gentoo!
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </section>
379 </chapter>
380 </guide>

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