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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.50 2005/12/21 14:44:32 jkt Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
13
14 <abstract>
15 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a
16 non-verbose manner. Users should already have prior experience with
17 installing Gentoo Linux if they want to follow this guide.
18 </abstract>
19
20 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22 <license/>
23
24 <version>2.10</version>
25 <date>2006-02-18</date>
26
27 <chapter>
28 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
29 <section>
30 <title>Installation Media</title>
31 <body>
32
33 <p>
34 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
35 You can find the ISOs in
36 <path>releases/&lt;architecture&gt;/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path>. The
37 <e>minimal</e> installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations;
38 with the <e>universal</e> installation CD you can perform a networkless
39 installation as well.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it. Press
44 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. Once booted,
45 you need to start the <c>pcmcia</c> init script if you need PCMCIA support.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 The installation CDs allow you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
50 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
51 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
52 </p>
53
54 </body>
55 </section>
56 <section>
57 <title>Network Configuration</title>
58 <body>
59
60 <p>
61 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
62 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
63 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
64 <c>adsl-setup</c> and <c>adsl-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
65 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
66 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
71 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
72 <c>route</c> manually.
73 </p>
74
75 <p>
76 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
77 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
88 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83).
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
93 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
94 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
99 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
100 you need them.
101 </p>
102
103 </body>
104 </section>
105 <section>
106 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
107 <body>
108
109 <p>
110 First make sure your date is set correctly using <c>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Next,
111 download a stage from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>
112 or use the one available on the installation CD
113 (<path>/mnt/cdrom/stages</path>). Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and unpack the
114 stage using <c>tar&nbsp;-xvjpf&nbsp;&lt;stage&nbsp;tarball&gt;</c>.
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 Install a Portage snapshot if you are performing a networkless installation: go
119 to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and run
120 <c>tar&nbsp;-xvjf&nbsp;/mnt/cdrom/snapshots/&lt;snapshot&gt;</c>. Other users
121 can download a portage snapshot and install it likewise.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 For a networkless installation, copy over the source code files from
126 <path>/mnt/cdrom/distfiles/</path> to
127 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles/</path>.
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 Edit <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> to suit your needs (USE flags,
132 CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS). You can use the <c>nano</c> editor for this.
133 </p>
134
135 </body>
136 </section>
137 <section>
138 <title>Installing the Gentoo Base System</title>
139 <body>
140
141 <p>
142 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system first, copy over the
143 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file and then chroot into your Gentoo
144 environment.
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Preparing and chrooting">
148 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
149 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
150 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
151 # <i>env-update</i> &amp;&amp; <i>source /etc/profile</i>
152 </pre>
153
154 <p>
155 If you are not running a networkless installation, issue <c>emerge --sync</c> to
156 update your Portage tree.
157 </p>
158
159 <p>
160 Next, make sure <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to the right profile. The
161 default one should suffice for most users; sub profiles are available for
162 different kernels (like <path>2.4/</path> for 2.4-kernel based profiles). Change
163 the profile using <c>ln -sfn</c>.
164 </p>
165
166 <ul>
167 <li>
168 Bootstrapping (not available for networkless installations) happens using
169 <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c> in the <path>/usr/portage</path> directory.
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 System installation (not available for networkless installations) happens
173 using <c>emerge&nbsp;-e&nbsp;system</c> (or <c>-N</c> if you haven't
174 altered the default CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS).
175 </li>
176 </ul>
177
178 </body>
179 </section>
180 <section>
181 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
182 <body>
183
184 <p>
185 Set your time zone information by copying correct file from
186 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> over the <path>/etc/localtime</path> file.
187 </p>
188
189 <p>
190 Install a kernel source (<c>gentoo-sources</c> and <c>vanilla-sources</c> are
191 available for networkless installations) and configure it using <c>make
192 menuconfig</c> followed by
193 <c>make&nbsp;&amp;&amp;&nbsp;make&nbsp;modules_install</c> inside
194 <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. Copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file
195 over to <path>/boot</path>. You can also <c>emerge&nbsp;genkernel</c> and use
196 <c>genkernel&nbsp;all</c>.
197 </p>
198
199 <p>
200 Genkernel users will need to <c>emerge&nbsp;coldplug</c> and
201 <c>rc-update&nbsp;add&nbsp;coldplug&nbsp;default</c>.
202 </p>
203
204 </body>
205 </section>
206 <section>
207 <title>Configuring the System</title>
208 <body>
209
210 <p>
211 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path>; an example follows:
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Example fstab">
215 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
216 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
217 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
218 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
219 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
220 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 Edit <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and <path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path>,
225 run <c>rc-update&nbsp;add&nbsp;domainname&nbsp;default</c> and edit
226 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> to
227 configure your network. Add the <c>net.eth0</c> init script to the default
228 run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them to the <c>net.eth0</c>
229 init script and add them to the default run level as well.
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 Edit <path>/etc/hosts</path>; examples are given below:
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Example /etc/hosts">
237 <comment>(For static IPs)</comment>
238 127.0.0.1 localhost
239 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
240 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
241 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
242
243 <comment>(For a dynamic IP)</comment>
244 127.0.0.1 localhost.homenetwork tux localhost
245 </pre>
246
247 <p>
248 Emerge <c>pcmcia-cs</c> and add it to the default run level if you need it.
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 Set the necessary system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
257 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>,
258 <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>.
259 </p>
260
261 </body>
262 </section>
263 <section>
264 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 Users of a 2.4 kernel need to run <c>emerge&nbsp;--unmerge&nbsp;udev</c> and
269 <c>emerge&nbsp;devfsd</c>.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and add it to the default
274 run level. Do the same for a cron daemon like <c>vixie-cron</c> (optional).
275 </p>
276
277 <p>
278 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
279 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>rp-pppoe</c>).
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </section>
284 <section>
285 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Edit <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or
290 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> to your likings. Below you will find an example for
291 each.
292 </p>
293
294 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
295 default 0
296 timeout 30
297 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
298
299 <comment># genkernel users</comment>
300 title=Gentoo Linux 2.6.11-r3
301 root (hd0,0)
302 kernel /kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3 root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev
303 initrd /initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
304
305 <comment># non-genkernel users (no initrd)</comment>
306 title=Gentoo Linux 2.6.11 r3
307 root (hd0,0)
308 kernel /kernel-2.6.11-gentoo-r3 root=/dev/hda3
309
310 <comment># Only in case you want to dual-boot</comment>
311 title=Windows XP
312 root (hd0,5)
313 makeactive
314 chainloader +1
315 </pre>
316
317 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
318 boot=/dev/hda
319 prompt
320 timeout=50
321 default=gentoo
322
323 <comment># For non-genkernel users</comment>
324 image=/boot/kernel-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
325 label=gentoo
326 read-only
327 root=/dev/hda3
328
329 <comment># For genkernel users</comment>
330 image=/boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
331 label=gentoo
332 read-only
333 root=/dev/ram0
334 append="init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev"
335 initrd=/boot/initramfs-genkernel-x86-2.6.11-gentoo-r3
336
337 <comment># For dual-booting</comment>
338 other=/dev/hda6
339 label=windows
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 GRUB users need to install GRUB in the MBR using
344 <c>grub-install&nbsp;/dev/hda</c> after copying <path>/proc/mounts</path> to
345 <path>/etc/mtab</path>. LILO users need to run <c>/sbin/lilo</c>.
346 </p>
347
348 <p>
349 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot.
350 </p>
351
352 </body>
353 </section>
354 <section>
355 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
356 <body>
357
358 <p>
359 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for day-to-day use using
360 <c>useradd&nbsp;-m&nbsp;-G&nbsp;&lt;groups&gt;&nbsp;&lt;username&gt;</c>.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 If you performed a networkless installation, mount the packages CD at
365 <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and <c>export&nbsp;PKGDIR="/mnt/cdrom"</c> after which
366 you can <c>emerge&nbsp;-k&nbsp;&lt;package&gt;</c> to install additional
367 software like <c>kde</c>.
368 </p>
369
370 <p>
371 Thanks for installing Gentoo!
372 </p>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 </chapter>
377 </guide>

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