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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.68 2007/02/15 16:18:21 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19 manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20 Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21 want to follow this guide.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 <license/>
27
28 <version>12</version>
29 <date>2007-02-26</date>
30
31 <chapter>
32 <title>Introduction</title>
33 <section>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38 installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39 stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46 </p>
47
48 <pre caption="Test box specs">
49 <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50 a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51
52 # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 bogomips : 3337.81
54
55 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56 /dev/sda:
57 Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58 Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59
60 # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61 MemTotal: 509248 kB
62 </pre>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 <section>
71 <title>Installation Media</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79 installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80 the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2006.1/handbook-x86.xml">2006.1 x86 installation
82 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 </p>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Booting the CD</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Press
97 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98 either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99 framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100 option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101 allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102 be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103 properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109 Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110 Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112 <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124 You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125 command can help you identify your hardware.
126 </p>
127
128 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129 livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130 <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131
132 <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133 livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134 livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 <section>
140 <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 <c>route</c> manually.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164 livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 and name server.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174 livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175 livecd root # <i>route add default gw 192.168.1.1</i>
176 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193 then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Start sshd">
197 livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198 * Generating hostkey ...
199 <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200 * starting sshd ... [ok]
201
202 real 0m13.688s
203 user 0m9.420s
204 sys 0m0.090s
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209 another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210 recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211 use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 disappear after your first reboot.
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Set the root password">
216 livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217 New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219 passwd: password updated successfully
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224 the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235 </pre>
236
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241 <body>
242
243 <p>
244 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246 following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247 as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248 <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249 IDE disk.
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254
255 <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257
258 Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261
262 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263 /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264 /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265 /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275 <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277
278 <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j -O dir_index /dev/sda3</i>
280
281 <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282 livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 you need them and mount them too.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293 livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 <section>
300 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305 MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309 <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310 livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311 Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312
313 <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314 livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315 Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321 unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326 livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory
328 highlight the stage3 of your choice, probably stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2
329 and press D to download it)</comment>
330
331 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
332 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
333 livecd gentoo # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
337 livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
338
339 real 1m13.157s
340 user 1m2.920s
341 sys 0m7.230s
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
346 a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
347 the latest snapshot and unpack it.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
351 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
352 livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
353 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
354 highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
355
356 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
357 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
358 livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
362 livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
363
364 real 0m51.523s
365 user 0m28.680s
366 sys 0m12.840s
367 </pre>
368
369 </body>
370 </section>
371 <section>
372 <title>Chrooting</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
377 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Chroot">
381 livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
382 livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
383 livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
384 livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
385 livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
386 >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
387 </pre>
388
389 </body>
390 </section>
391 <section>
392 <title>Set your timezone</title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 Set your time zone information by copying the correct file from
397 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> over the <path>/etc/localtime</path> file.
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Copy your timezone file">
401 <comment>(Using Brussels as an example)</comment>
402 livecd / # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
403 livecd / # <i>date</i>
404 Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
405 </pre>
406
407 </body>
408 </section>
409 <section>
410 <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
411 <body>
412
413 <p>
414 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
415 <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
416 name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
417 files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
421 livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
422 livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
423 livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
424 <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
425 livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
426 livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
427 mybox.at.myplace
428 </pre>
429
430 </body>
431 </section>
432 <section>
433 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
434 <body>
435
436 <p>
437 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
438 it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
439 </p>
440
441 <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
442 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
443
444 real 2m51.435s
445 user 0m58.220s
446 sys 0m29.890s
447 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
448 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
449 <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
450 livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
451
452 <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
453 real 3m51.962s
454 user 3m27.060s
455 sys 0m24.310s
456
457 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
458 livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
459 </pre>
460
461 </body>
462 </section>
463 <section>
464 <title>Configure the system</title>
465 <body>
466
467 <p>
468 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
469 <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
470 file systems match your installation.
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption="Example fstab">
474 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
475 livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
476 /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
477 /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
478 /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
483 init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
484 to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
485 well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
486 following commands:
487 </p>
488
489 <pre caption="Configure networking">
490 livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
491 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
492 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
493 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
494 <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
495 add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
496 livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
497 <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
498 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
499 </pre>
500
501 <note>
502 Emerge <c>pcmcia-cs</c> and add it to the default run level if you need it.
503 </note>
504
505 <p>
506 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Set the root password">
510 livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
511 New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
512 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
513 passwd: password updated successfully
514 </pre>
515
516 <p>
517 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
518 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>,
519 <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and edit any of those files if required.
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
523 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
524 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
525 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
526 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
527 </pre>
528
529 </body>
530 </section>
531 <section>
532 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
533 <body>
534
535 <p>
536 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
537 <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
538 </p>
539
540 <note>
541 Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
542 dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
543 it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
544 you install the MTA of your choice.
545 </note>
546
547 <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
548 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
549
550 real 1m52.699s
551 user 1m1.630s
552 sys 0m35.220s
553 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
554 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
555 </pre>
556
557 <p>
558 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
559 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>rp-pppoe</c>) if
560 you need any.
561 </p>
562
563 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
564 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
565 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
566 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
567 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
568 livecd conf.d # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
569 </pre>
570
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 <section>
574 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
575 <body>
576
577 <p>
578 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
579 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
580 the bootloader you have emerged.
581 </p>
582
583 <p>
584 <b>1. Using grub</b>
585 </p>
586
587 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
588 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
589
590 real 1m8.634s
591 user 0m39.460s
592 sys 0m15.280s
593 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
594 </pre>
595
596 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
597 default 0
598 timeout 10
599
600 title=Gentoo
601 root (hd0,0)
602 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
603 </pre>
604
605 <pre caption="Install grub">
606 livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
607 Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
608
609 grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
610 Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
611
612 grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
613 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
614 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
615 Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
616 Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
617 succeeded
618 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
619 grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
620 Done.
621
622 grub> <i>quit</i>
623 </pre>
624
625 <p>
626 Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
627 </p>
628
629 <p>
630 <b>2. Using lilo</b>
631 </p>
632
633 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
634 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
635
636 real 0m47.016s
637 user 0m22.770s
638 sys 0m5.980s
639 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
640 </pre>
641
642 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
643 boot=/dev/sda
644 prompt
645 timeout=50
646 default=gentoo
647
648 image=/boot/kernel
649 label=Gentoo
650 read-only
651 root=/dev/sda3
652 </pre>
653
654 <pre caption="Install lilo">
655 livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
656 Added Gentoo *
657 </pre>
658
659 </body>
660 </section>
661 <section id="reboot">
662 <title>Reboot</title>
663 <body>
664
665 <p>
666 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
667 </p>
668
669 <pre caption="Reboot">
670 livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
671 livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
672 livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
673 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
674 </pre>
675
676 </body>
677 </section>
678 <section id="after-reboot">
679 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
680 <body>
681
682 <note>
683 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
684 minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
685 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
686 also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
687 and the time spent configuring the kernel.
688 </note>
689
690 <p>
691 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
692 <c>useradd</c>.
693 </p>
694
695 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
696 <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
697 has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
698 $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
699 <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
700 then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
701
702 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
703 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
704 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
705 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
706 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
707 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
708 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
709 </pre>
710
711 <pre caption="Add a new user">
712 mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
713 mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
714 New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
715 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
716 passwd: password updated successfully
717 </pre>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 <section>
722 <title>Last configuration touches</title>
723 <body>
724
725 <p>
726 Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
727 <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
728 <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
729 processes at this point.
730 </p>
731
732 <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
733 mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
734 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
735 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
736 <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
737 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
738 </pre>
739
740 <p>
741 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
742 world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
743 disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
744 following command to define the USE variable:
745 </p>
746
747 <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
748 mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
749 <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
750 disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable userlocales and unicode)</comment>
751 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran userlocales unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
752 </pre>
753
754 <p>
755 If you enabled the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag for versions of glibc that still
756 support it, you should edit <path>/etc/locales.build</path> and define the
757 locales you want to build.
758 </p>
759
760 <p>
761 Later versions of glibc ignore the userlocales USE flag and use
762 <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> instead. If you are upgrading glibc to such a
763 version, you should create <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> <e>and remove</e>
764 <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Check the output of <c>emerge -vpe world</c>
765 to know whether glibc supports the userlocales USE flag.
766 </p>
767
768 <pre caption="Define locales">
769 mybox ~ # <i>cd /etc</i>
770 <comment>(For versions of glibc with the userlocales USE flag)</comment>
771 mybox etc # <i>nano -w locales.build</i>
772
773 <comment>(For recent versions of glibc, convert locales.build)</comment>
774 mybox etc # <i>grep '^[^#].*' locales.build | sed 's:/: :' >locale.gen</i>
775 mybox etc # <i>rm locales.build</i>
776 mybox etc # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
777 </pre>
778
779 <p>
780 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
781 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
782 note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
783 broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
784 <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
785 </p>
786
787 <p>
788 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
789 deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
790 stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
791 <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
792 </p>
793
794 <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
795 mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
796 <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
797 CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
798 <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
799 FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
800 <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
801 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
802 </pre>
803
804 <p>
805 You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
806 latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
807 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
808 over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
809 a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
810 see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
811 for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
812 world.
813 </p>
814
815 <p>
816 Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
817 or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
818 also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
819 <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
820 use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
821 </p>
822
823 <pre caption="Update your packages">
824 <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
825 mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
826
827 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
828 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
829 <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
830 remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
831 mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
832 <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
833
834 real 180m13.276s
835 user 121m22.905s
836 sys 36m31.472s
837
838 <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
839 mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
840
841 <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
842 update config files you have edited)</comment>
843 mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
844
845 <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
846 mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
847 real 1m6.495s
848 user 0m42.699s
849 sys 0m10.641s
850
851 <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
852 mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
853 </pre>
854
855 </body>
856 </section>
857 <section>
858 <title>What to do next</title>
859 <body>
860
861 <p>
862 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
863 want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
864 <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
865 installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
866 point.
867 </p>
868
869 <p>
870 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
871 how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
872 </p>
873
874 <impo>
875 The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
876 </impo>
877
878 <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
879 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
880 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
881 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
882 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
883 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
884 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
885 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
886
887 mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
888 <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
889
890 real 520m44.532s
891 user 339m21.144s
892 sys 146m22.337s
893 </pre>
894
895 <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
896 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
897 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
898 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
899 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
900 <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
901 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
902 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
903
904 mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
905 <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
906
907 real 1171m25.318s
908 user 851m26.393s
909 sys 281m45.629s
910 </pre>
911
912 </body>
913 </section>
914 </chapter>
915 </guide>

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