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Revision 1.72 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Apr 10 19:37:05 2007 UTC (7 years, 4 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.71: +5 -6 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
really fixed x86 quickinstall this time. bug 173929

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.71 2007/04/09 19:44:52 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19 manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20 Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21 want to follow this guide.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 <license/>
27
28 <version>15</version>
29 <date>2007-04-10</date>
30
31 <chapter>
32 <title>Introduction</title>
33 <section>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38 installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39 stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46 </p>
47
48 <pre caption="Test box specs">
49 <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50 a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51
52 # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 bogomips : 3337.81
54
55 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56 /dev/sda:
57 Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58 Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59
60 # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61 MemTotal: 509248 kB
62 </pre>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 <section>
71 <title>Installation Media</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79 installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80 the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2006.1/handbook-x86.xml">2006.1 x86 installation
82 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 </p>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Booting the CD</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Press
97 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98 either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99 framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100 option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101 allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102 be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103 properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109 Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110 Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112 <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124 You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125 command can help you identify your hardware.
126 </p>
127
128 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129 livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130 <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131
132 <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133 livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134 livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 <section>
140 <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 <c>route</c> manually.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164 livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 and name server.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174 livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175 livecd root # <i>route add default gw 192.168.1.1</i>
176 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193 then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Start sshd">
197 livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198 * Generating hostkey ...
199 <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200 * starting sshd ... [ok]
201
202 real 0m13.688s
203 user 0m9.420s
204 sys 0m0.090s
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209 another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210 recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211 use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 disappear after your first reboot.
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Set the root password">
216 livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217 New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219 passwd: password updated successfully
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224 the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235 </pre>
236
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241 <body>
242
243 <p>
244 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246 following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247 as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248 <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249 IDE disk.
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254
255 <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257
258 Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261
262 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263 /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264 /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265 /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275 <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277
278 <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j -O dir_index /dev/sda3</i>
280
281 <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282 livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 you need them and mount them too.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293 livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 <section>
300 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305 MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309 <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310 livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311 Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312
313 <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314 livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315 Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321 unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326 livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory
328 highlight the stage3 of your choice, probably stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2
329 and press D to download it)</comment>
330
331 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
332 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
333 livecd gentoo # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686-2006.1.tar.bz2</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
337 livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
338
339 real 1m13.157s
340 user 1m2.920s
341 sys 0m7.230s
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
346 a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
347 the latest snapshot and unpack it.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
351 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
352 livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
353 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
354 highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
355
356 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
357 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
358 livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
362 livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
363
364 real 0m51.523s
365 user 0m28.680s
366 sys 0m12.840s
367 </pre>
368
369 </body>
370 </section>
371 <section>
372 <title>Chrooting</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
377 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Chroot">
381 livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
382 livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
383 livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
384 livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
385 livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
386 >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
387 </pre>
388
389 </body>
390 </section>
391 <section>
392 <title>Set your timezone</title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 Set your time zone information by setting the timezone listing from
397 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path> in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>.
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Setting your timezone">
401 <comment>(Using CET as an example)</comment>
402 livecd / # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
403 TIMEZONE="CET"
404
405 livecd / # <i>date</i>
406 Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section>
412 <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
413 <body>
414
415 <p>
416 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
417 <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
418 name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
419 files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
423 livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
424 livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
425 livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
426 <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
427 livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
428 livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
429 mybox.at.myplace
430 </pre>
431
432 </body>
433 </section>
434 <section>
435 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
436 <body>
437
438 <p>
439 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
440 it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
441 </p>
442
443 <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
444 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
445
446 real 2m51.435s
447 user 0m58.220s
448 sys 0m29.890s
449 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
450 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
451 <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
452 livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
453
454 <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
455 real 3m51.962s
456 user 3m27.060s
457 sys 0m24.310s
458
459 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
460 livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
461 </pre>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section>
466 <title>Configure the system</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
471 <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
472 file systems match your installation.
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption="Example fstab">
476 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
477 livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
478 /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
479 /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
480 /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
485 init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
486 to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
487 well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
488 following commands:
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Configure networking">
492 livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
493 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
494 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
495 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
496 <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
497 add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
498 livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
499 <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
500 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <note>
504 Emerge <c>pcmciautils</c> if you need support for PCMCIA cards.
505 </note>
506
507 <p>
508 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Set the root password">
512 livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
513 New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
514 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
515 passwd: password updated successfully
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>
519 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
520 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>,
521 <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and edit any of those files if required.
522 </p>
523
524 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
525 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
526 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
527 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
528 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 </body>
532 </section>
533 <section>
534 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
535 <body>
536
537 <p>
538 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
539 <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
540 </p>
541
542 <note>
543 Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
544 dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
545 it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
546 you install the MTA of your choice.
547 </note>
548
549 <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
550 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
551
552 real 1m52.699s
553 user 1m1.630s
554 sys 0m35.220s
555 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
556 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
557 </pre>
558
559 <p>
560 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
561 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>ppp</c>) if you
562 need any.
563 </p>
564
565 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
566 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
567 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
568 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
569 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
570 livecd conf.d # <i>USE="-X" emerge ppp</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
571 </pre>
572
573 </body>
574 </section>
575 <section>
576 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
577 <body>
578
579 <p>
580 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
581 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
582 the bootloader you have emerged.
583 </p>
584
585 <p>
586 <b>1. Using grub</b>
587 </p>
588
589 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
590 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
591
592 real 1m8.634s
593 user 0m39.460s
594 sys 0m15.280s
595 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
596 </pre>
597
598 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
599 default 0
600 timeout 10
601
602 title=Gentoo
603 root (hd0,0)
604 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
605 </pre>
606
607 <pre caption="Install grub">
608 livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
609 Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
610
611 grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
612 Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
613
614 grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
615 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
616 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
617 Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
618 Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
619 succeeded
620 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
621 grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
622 Done.
623
624 grub> <i>quit</i>
625 </pre>
626
627 <p>
628 Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
629 </p>
630
631 <p>
632 <b>2. Using lilo</b>
633 </p>
634
635 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
636 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
637
638 real 0m47.016s
639 user 0m22.770s
640 sys 0m5.980s
641 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
642 </pre>
643
644 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
645 boot=/dev/sda
646 prompt
647 timeout=50
648 default=gentoo
649
650 image=/boot/kernel
651 label=Gentoo
652 read-only
653 root=/dev/sda3
654 </pre>
655
656 <pre caption="Install lilo">
657 livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
658 Added Gentoo *
659 </pre>
660
661 </body>
662 </section>
663 <section id="reboot">
664 <title>Reboot</title>
665 <body>
666
667 <p>
668 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
669 </p>
670
671 <pre caption="Reboot">
672 livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
673 livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
674 livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
675 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
676 </pre>
677
678 </body>
679 </section>
680 <section id="after-reboot">
681 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
682 <body>
683
684 <note>
685 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
686 minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
687 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
688 also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
689 and the time spent configuring the kernel.
690 </note>
691
692 <p>
693 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
694 <c>useradd</c>.
695 </p>
696
697 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
698 <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
699 has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
700 $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
701 <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
702 then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
703
704 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
705 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
706 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
707 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
708 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
709 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
710 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
711 </pre>
712
713 <pre caption="Add a new user">
714 mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
715 mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
716 New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
717 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
718 passwd: password updated successfully
719 </pre>
720
721 </body>
722 </section>
723 <section>
724 <title>Last configuration touches</title>
725 <body>
726
727 <p>
728 Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
729 <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
730 <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
731 processes at this point.
732 </p>
733
734 <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
735 mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
736 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
737 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
738 <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
739 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
740 </pre>
741
742 <p>
743 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
744 world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
745 disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
746 following command to define the USE variable:
747 </p>
748
749 <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
750 mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
751 <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
752 disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable unicode)</comment>
753 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
754 </pre>
755
756 <p>
757 Recent versions of glibc use <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> to define locale
758 settings.
759 </p>
760
761 <pre caption="Define locales">
762 mybox # <i>cd /etc</i>
763 mybox # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
764 </pre>
765
766 <p>
767 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
768 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
769 note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
770 broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
771 <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
772 </p>
773
774 <p>
775 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
776 deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
777 stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
778 <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
779 </p>
780
781 <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
782 mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
783 <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
784 CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
785 <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
786 FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
787 <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
788 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
789 </pre>
790
791 <p>
792 You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
793 latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
794 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
795 over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
796 a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
797 see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
798 for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
799 world.
800 </p>
801
802 <p>
803 Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
804 or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
805 also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
806 <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
807 use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
808 </p>
809
810 <pre caption="Update your packages">
811 <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
812 mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
813
814 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
815 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
816 <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
817 remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
818 mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
819 <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
820
821 real 180m13.276s
822 user 121m22.905s
823 sys 36m31.472s
824
825 <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
826 mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
827
828 <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
829 update config files you have edited)</comment>
830 mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
831
832 <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
833 mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
834 real 1m6.495s
835 user 0m42.699s
836 sys 0m10.641s
837
838 <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
839 mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
840 </pre>
841
842 </body>
843 </section>
844 <section>
845 <title>What to do next</title>
846 <body>
847
848 <p>
849 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
850 want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
851 <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
852 installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
853 point.
854 </p>
855
856 <p>
857 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
858 how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
859 </p>
860
861 <impo>
862 The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
863 </impo>
864
865 <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
866 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
867 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
868 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
869 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
870 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
871 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
872 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
873
874 mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
875 <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
876
877 real 520m44.532s
878 user 339m21.144s
879 sys 146m22.337s
880 </pre>
881
882 <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
883 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
884 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
885 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
886 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
887 <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
888 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
889 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
890
891 mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
892 <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
893
894 real 1171m25.318s
895 user 851m26.393s
896 sys 281m45.629s
897 </pre>
898
899 </body>
900 </section>
901 </chapter>
902 </guide>

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