/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.74 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon May 7 18:11:40 2007 UTC (6 years, 11 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.73: +13 -20 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
2007.0 release is here; final changes and new docs

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.73 2007/04/11 10:17:50 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19 manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20 Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21 want to follow this guide.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 <license/>
27
28 <version>17</version>
29 <date>2007-05-07</date>
30
31 <chapter>
32 <title>Introduction</title>
33 <section>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38 installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39 stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46 </p>
47
48 <pre caption="Test box specs">
49 <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50 a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51
52 # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 bogomips : 3337.81
54
55 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56 /dev/sda:
57 Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58 Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59
60 # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61 MemTotal: 509248 kB
62 </pre>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 <section>
71 <title>Installation Media</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79 installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80 the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2007.0/handbook-x86.xml">2007.0 x86 installation
82 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 </p>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Booting the CD</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Press
97 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98 either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99 framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100 option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101 allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102 be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103 properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109 Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110 Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112 <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124 You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125 command can help you identify your hardware.
126 </p>
127
128 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129 livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130 <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131
132 <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133 livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134 livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 <section>
140 <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 <c>route</c> manually.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164 livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 and name server.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174 livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175 livecd root # <i>route add default via 192.168.1.1</i>
176 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193 then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Start sshd">
197 livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198 * Generating hostkey ...
199 <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200 * starting sshd ... [ok]
201
202 real 0m13.688s
203 user 0m9.420s
204 sys 0m0.090s
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209 another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210 recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211 use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 disappear after your first reboot.
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Set the root password">
216 livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217 New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219 passwd: password updated successfully
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224 the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235 </pre>
236
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241 <body>
242
243 <p>
244 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246 following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247 as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248 <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249 IDE disk.
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254
255 <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257
258 Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261
262 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263 /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264 /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265 /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275 <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277
278 <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
280
281 <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282 livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 you need them and mount them too.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293 livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 <section>
300 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305 MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309 <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310 livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311 Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312
313 <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314 livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315 Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321 unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326 livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory highlight the
328 stage3 of your choice, probably the i686 stage3 and press D to download it)</comment>
329
330 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
331 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
332 livecd gentoo # <i>wget ftp://gentoo.osuosl.org/pub/gentoo/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686*tar.bz2</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
336 livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
337
338 real 1m13.157s
339 user 1m2.920s
340 sys 0m7.230s
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
345 a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
346 the latest snapshot and unpack it.
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
350 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
351 livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
352 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
353 highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
354
355 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
356 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
357 livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
358 </pre>
359
360 <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
361 livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
362
363 real 0m51.523s
364 user 0m28.680s
365 sys 0m12.840s
366 </pre>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section>
371 <title>Chrooting</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
376 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Chroot">
380 livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
381 livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
382 livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
383 livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
384 livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
385 >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
386 </pre>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 <section>
391 <title>Set your time zone</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <p>
395 Set your time zone information by using the correct listing in
396 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>.
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Setting your timezone">
400 livecd / # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
401 <comment>(Using Brussels as an example)</comment>
402 livecd / # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
403 TIMEZONE="Europe/Brussels"
404
405 livecd / # <i>date</i>
406 Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section>
412 <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
413 <body>
414
415 <p>
416 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
417 <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
418 name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
419 files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
423 livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
424 livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
425 livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
426 <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
427 livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
428 livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
429 mybox.at.myplace
430 </pre>
431
432 </body>
433 </section>
434 <section>
435 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
436 <body>
437
438 <p>
439 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
440 it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
441 </p>
442
443 <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
444 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
445
446 real 2m51.435s
447 user 0m58.220s
448 sys 0m29.890s
449 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
450 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
451 <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
452 livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
453
454 <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
455 real 3m51.962s
456 user 3m27.060s
457 sys 0m24.310s
458
459 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
460 livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
461 </pre>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section>
466 <title>Configure the system</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
471 <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
472 file systems match your installation.
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption="Example fstab">
476 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
477 livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
478 /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
479 /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
480 /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
485 init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
486 to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
487 well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
488 following commands:
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Configure networking">
492 livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
493 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
494 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
495 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
496 <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
497 add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
498 livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
499 <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
500 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <note>
504 Emerge <c>pcmciautils</c> if you need support for PCMCIA cards.
505 </note>
506
507 <p>
508 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Set the root password">
512 livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
513 New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
514 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
515 passwd: password updated successfully
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>
519 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
520 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> and edit any of
521 those files if required.
522 </p>
523
524 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
525 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
526 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
527 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 </body>
531 </section>
532 <section>
533 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
534 <body>
535
536 <p>
537 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
538 <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
539 </p>
540
541 <note>
542 Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
543 dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
544 it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
545 you install the MTA of your choice.
546 </note>
547
548 <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
549 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
550
551 real 1m52.699s
552 user 1m1.630s
553 sys 0m35.220s
554 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
555 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
556 </pre>
557
558 <p>
559 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
560 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>ppp</c>) if you
561 need any.
562 </p>
563
564 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
565 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
566 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
567 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
568 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
569 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge ppp</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
570 </pre>
571
572 </body>
573 </section>
574 <section>
575 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
576 <body>
577
578 <p>
579 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
580 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
581 the bootloader you have emerged.
582 </p>
583
584 <p>
585 <b>1. Using grub</b>
586 </p>
587
588 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
589 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
590
591 real 1m8.634s
592 user 0m39.460s
593 sys 0m15.280s
594 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
595 </pre>
596
597 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
598 default 0
599 timeout 10
600
601 title=Gentoo
602 root (hd0,0)
603 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
604 </pre>
605
606 <pre caption="Install grub">
607 livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
608 Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
609
610 grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
611 Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
612
613 grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
614 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
615 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
616 Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
617 Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
618 succeeded
619 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
620 grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
621 Done.
622
623 grub> <i>quit</i>
624 </pre>
625
626 <p>
627 Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
628 </p>
629
630 <p>
631 <b>2. Using lilo</b>
632 </p>
633
634 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
635 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
636
637 real 0m47.016s
638 user 0m22.770s
639 sys 0m5.980s
640 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
641 </pre>
642
643 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
644 boot=/dev/sda
645 prompt
646 timeout=50
647 default=gentoo
648
649 image=/boot/kernel
650 label=Gentoo
651 read-only
652 root=/dev/sda3
653 </pre>
654
655 <pre caption="Install lilo">
656 livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
657 Added Gentoo *
658 </pre>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 <section id="reboot">
663 <title>Reboot</title>
664 <body>
665
666 <p>
667 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
668 </p>
669
670 <pre caption="Reboot">
671 livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
672 livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
673 livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
674 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
675 </pre>
676
677 </body>
678 </section>
679 <section id="after-reboot">
680 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
681 <body>
682
683 <note>
684 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
685 minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
686 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
687 also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
688 and the time spent configuring the kernel.
689 </note>
690
691 <p>
692 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
693 <c>useradd</c>.
694 </p>
695
696 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
697 <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
698 has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
699 $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
700 <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
701 then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
702
703 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
704 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
705 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
706 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
707 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
708 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
709 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
710 </pre>
711
712 <pre caption="Add a new user">
713 mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
714 mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
715 New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
716 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
717 passwd: password updated successfully
718 </pre>
719
720 </body>
721 </section>
722 <section>
723 <title>Last configuration touches</title>
724 <body>
725
726 <p>
727 Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
728 <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
729 <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
730 processes at this point.
731 </p>
732
733 <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
734 mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
735 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
736 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
737 <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
738 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
739 </pre>
740
741 <p>
742 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
743 world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
744 disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
745 following command to define the USE variable:
746 </p>
747
748 <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
749 mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
750 <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
751 disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable unicode)</comment>
752 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
753 </pre>
754
755 <p>
756 Recent versions of glibc use <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> to define locale
757 settings.
758 </p>
759
760 <pre caption="Define locales">
761 mybox ~ # <i>cd /etc</i>
762 mybox etc # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
763 </pre>
764
765 <p>
766 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
767 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
768 note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
769 broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
770 <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
771 </p>
772
773 <p>
774 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
775 deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
776 stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
777 <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
778 </p>
779
780 <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
781 mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
782 <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
783 CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
784 <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
785 FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
786 <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
787 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
788 </pre>
789
790 <p>
791 You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
792 latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
793 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
794 over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
795 a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
796 see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
797 for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
798 world.
799 </p>
800
801 <p>
802 Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
803 or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
804 also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
805 <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
806 use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
807 </p>
808
809 <pre caption="Update your packages">
810 <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
811 mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
812
813 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
814 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
815 <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
816 remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
817 mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
818 <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
819
820 real 180m13.276s
821 user 121m22.905s
822 sys 36m31.472s
823
824 <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
825 mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
826
827 <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
828 update config files you have edited)</comment>
829 mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
830
831 <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
832 mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
833 real 1m6.495s
834 user 0m42.699s
835 sys 0m10.641s
836
837 <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
838 mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
839 </pre>
840
841 </body>
842 </section>
843 <section>
844 <title>What to do next</title>
845 <body>
846
847 <p>
848 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
849 want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
850 <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
851 installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
852 point.
853 </p>
854
855 <p>
856 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
857 how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
858 </p>
859
860 <impo>
861 The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
862 </impo>
863
864 <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
865 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
866 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
867 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
868 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
869 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
870 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
871 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
872
873 mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
874 <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
875
876 real 520m44.532s
877 user 339m21.144s
878 sys 146m22.337s
879 </pre>
880
881 <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
882 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
883 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
884 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
885 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
886 <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
887 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
888 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
889
890 mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
891 <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
892
893 real 1171m25.318s
894 user 851m26.393s
895 sys 281m45.629s
896 </pre>
897
898 </body>
899 </section>
900 </chapter>
901 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20