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Sun May 20 20:32:22 2007 UTC (7 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.76: +12 -12 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
seems the previous fix was made a little too quickly? reverting previous change.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml,v 1.75 2007/05/08 08:00:27 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-quickinstall.xml" lang="en">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Author">Steven Wagner</author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 The Quick install guide covers the Gentoo install process in a non-verbose
19 manner. Its purpose is to allow users to perform a stage3 install in no time.
20 Users should already have prior experience with installing Gentoo Linux if they
21 want to follow this guide.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 <license/>
27
28 <version>18</version>
29 <date>2007-05-08</date>
30
31 <chapter>
32 <title>Introduction</title>
33 <section>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3
38 installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the
39 stage3 and Portage snapshots.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to
44 finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and
45 two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.
46 </p>
47
48 <pre caption="Test box specs">
49 <comment>(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine
50 a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)</comment>
51
52 # <i>grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo</i>
53 bogomips : 3337.81
54
55 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/sda</i>
56 /dev/sda:
57 Timing cached reads: 1100 MB in 2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec
58 Timing buffered disk reads: 224 MB in 3.01 seconds = 74.36 MB/sec
59
60 # <i>grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo</i>
61 MemTotal: 509248 kB
62 </pre>
63
64 </body>
65 </section>
66 </chapter>
67
68 <chapter>
69 <title>Quick Install Guide</title>
70 <section>
71 <title>Installation Media</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 Download a CD from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
76 You can find the minimal CD ISO in
77 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/installcd</path> or the LiveCD ISO in
78 <path>releases/x86/&lt;release&gt;/livecd</path>. The <e>minimal</e>
79 installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use
80 the <e>LiveCD</e> to perform a networkless installation as documented in the
81 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/2007.0/handbook-x86.xml">2007.0 x86 installation
82 handbook</uri>. The minimal CD is recommended.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Burn</uri> the CD and boot it.
87 </p>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Booting the CD</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Press
97 <c>F2</c> at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can
98 either start <c>gentoo</c> or <c>gentoo-nofb</c>, the latter disables the
99 framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the <c>nox</c>
100 option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options
101 allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will
102 be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot
103 properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to
104 experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the
105 <c>nodetect</c> option and then load required modules explicitly.
106 </p>
107
108 <pre caption="Boot the minimal CD">
109 Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD http://www.gentoo.org
110 Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels F2 for options.
111 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb</i>
112 <comment>(or in case of problems)</comment>
113 boot: <i>gentoo-nofb nodetect</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Optional: loading modules</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 If you used the <c>nodetect</c> option, once booted, load the required modules.
124 You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The <c>lspci</c>
125 command can help you identify your hardware.
126 </p>
127
128 <pre caption="Load required modules">
129 livecd root # <i>lspci</i>
130 <comment>(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)</comment>
131
132 <comment>(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)</comment>
133 livecd root # <i>modprobe 3w-9xxx</i>
134 livecd root # <i>modprobe r8169</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 </body>
138 </section>
139 <section>
140 <title>Network Configuration</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 If your network does not work already, you can use <c>net-setup</c> to configure
145 your network. You might need to load support for your network card using
146 <c>modprobe</c> prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use
147 <c>pppoe-setup</c> and <c>pppoe-start</c>. For PPTP support, first edit
148 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and <path>/etc/ppp/options.pptp</path> and
149 then use <c>pptp &lt;server&nbsp;ip&gt;</c>.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 For wireless access, use <c>iwconfig</c> to set the wireless parameters and then
154 use either <c>net-setup</c> again or run <c>ifconfig</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c> and/or
155 <c>route</c> manually.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using
160 <c>export http_proxy</c>, <c>ftp_proxy</c> and <c>RSYNC_PROXY</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Configure networking the guided way">
164 livecd root # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns
169 the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router
170 and name server.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Configure networking the manual way">
174 livecd root # <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24</i>
175 livecd root # <i>route add default gw 192.168.1.1</i>
176 livecd root # <i>echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 &gt; /etc/resolv.conf</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 The installation CD allows you to start an <c>sshd</c> server, add additional
181 users, run <c>irssi</c> (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using
182 <c>lynx</c> or <c>links</c>.
183 </p>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Optional: connect to your new box over ssh</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 The most interesting feature is of course <c>sshd</c>. You can start it and
193 then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Start sshd">
197 livecd root # <i>time /etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
198 * Generating hostkey ...
199 <comment>(sshd generates the key and displays more output)</comment>
200 * starting sshd ... [ok]
201
202 real 0m13.688s
203 user 0m9.420s
204 sys 0m0.090s
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from
209 another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not
210 recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network,
211 use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will
212 disappear after your first reboot.
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Set the root password">
216 livecd root # <i>passwd</i>
217 New UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
218 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_a_password</comment>
219 passwd: password updated successfully
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow
224 the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
228 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
229 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
230 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
231 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
232 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
233 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
234 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
235 </pre>
236
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>Preparing the Disks</title>
241 <body>
242
243 <p>
244 Use <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> to create your partition layout. You need at
245 least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The
246 following scenario creates a <path>/boot</path>, a swap and a main partition
247 as used in our handbook. The device name is likely to be either
248 <path>/dev/sda</path> for a SATA or SCSI disk, or <path>/dev/hda</path> for an
249 IDE disk.
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Create the partitions">
253 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
254
255 <comment>(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)</comment>
256 livecd ~ # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
257
258 Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes
259 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders
260 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
261
262 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
263 /dev/sda1 1 12 96358+ 83 Linux
264 /dev/sda2 13 110 787185 82 Linux swap / Solaris
265 /dev/sda3 111 72943 585031072+ 83 Linux
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Use <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mke2fs -j</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, <c>mkfs.xfs</c> and
270 <c>mkfs.jfs</c> to create file systems on your Linux partitions. Initialize your
271 swap partition using <c>mkswap</c> and <c>swapon</c>.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Create the file systems and activate swap">
275 <comment>(ext2 is all you need on the /boot partition)</comment>
276 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
277
278 <comment>(Let's use ext3 on the main partition)</comment>
279 livecd ~ # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda3</i>
280
281 <comment>(Create and activate swap)</comment>
282 livecd ~ # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2 &amp;&amp; swapon /dev/sda2</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 Mount the freshly created file systems on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. Create
287 directories for the other mount points (like <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path>) if
288 you need them and mount them too.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Mount the file systems">
292 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
293 livecd ~ # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
294 livecd ~ # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 <section>
300 <title>Setting Up The Stage</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 First make sure your date and time is set correctly using <c>date
305 MMDDhhmmYYYY</c>. Use UTC time.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Set the date and UTC time">
309 <comment>(Check the clock)</comment>
310 livecd ~ # <i>date</i>
311 Mon Mar 6 00:14:13 UTC 2006
312
313 <comment>(Set the current date and time if required)</comment>
314 livecd ~ # <i>date 030600162006</i> <comment>(Format is MMDDhhmmYYYY)</comment>
315 Mon Mar 6 00:16:00 UTC 2006
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Next, download a stage from one of our <uri
320 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. Go to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
321 unpack the stage using <c>tar xjpf &lt;stage3 tarball&gt;</c>.
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Download a stage3 archive">
325 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
326 livecd gentoo # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
327 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the releases/x86/current/stages directory highlight the
328 stage3 of your choice, probably the i686 stage3 and press D to download it)</comment>
329
330 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
331 livecd ~ # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
332 livecd gentoo # <i>wget ftp://gentoo.osuosl.org/pub/gentoo/releases/x86/current/stages/stage3-i686*tar.bz2</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <pre caption="Unpack the stage3 archive">
336 livecd gentoo # <i>time tar xjpf stage3*</i>
337
338 real 1m13.157s
339 user 1m2.920s
340 sys 0m7.230s
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 Install the latest Portage snapshot. Proceed as for the stage3 archive: choose
345 a nearby mirror from our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">list</uri>, download
346 the latest snapshot and unpack it.
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Download the latest Portage snapshot">
350 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
351 livecd usr # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</i>
352 <comment>(Pick a mirror, move to the snapshots/ directory,
353 highlight <b>portage-latest.tar.bz2</b> and press D to download it)</comment>
354
355 <comment>(<b>Or</b> download it directly with wget without choosing a nearby mirror)</comment>
356 livecd gentoo # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
357 livecd usr # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
358 </pre>
359
360 <pre caption="Unpack the Portage snapshot">
361 livecd usr # <i>time tar xjf portage*</i>
362
363 real 0m51.523s
364 user 0m28.680s
365 sys 0m12.840s
366 </pre>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section>
371 <title>Chrooting</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 Mount the <path>/proc</path> file system, copy over the
376 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file, then chroot into your Gentoo environment.
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Chroot">
380 livecd usr # <i>cd /</i>
381 livecd / # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
382 livecd / # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
383 livecd / # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
384 livecd / # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
385 >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
386 </pre>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 <section>
391 <title>Set your time zone</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <p>
395 Set your time zone information by using the correct listing in
396 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>.
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Setting your timezone">
400 livecd / # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
401 <comment>(Using Brussels as an example)</comment>
402 livecd / # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
403
404 livecd / # <i>date</i>
405 Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
406 </pre>
407
408 </body>
409 </section>
410 <section>
411 <title>Set your host and domain name</title>
412 <body>
413
414 <p>
415 Set your host name in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> and
416 <path>/etc/hosts</path>. In the following example, we use <c>mybox</c> as host
417 name and <c>at.myplace</c> as domain name. You can either edit the config
418 files with <c>nano</c> or use the following commands:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Set host and domain name">
422 livecd / # <i>cd /etc</i>
423 livecd etc # <i>echo "127.0.0.1 mybox.at.myplace mybox localhost" > hosts</i>
424 livecd etc # <i>sed -i -e 's/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME="mybox"/' conf.d/hostname</i>
425 <comment>(Use defined host name and check)</comment>
426 livecd etc # <i>hostname mybox</i>
427 livecd etc # <i>hostname -f</i>
428 mybox.at.myplace
429 </pre>
430
431 </body>
432 </section>
433 <section>
434 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 Install a kernel source (usually <c>gentoo-sources</c>), configure it, compile
439 it and copy the <path>arch/i386/boot/bzImage</path> file to <path>/boot</path>.
440 </p>
441
442 <pre caption="Install a kernel source, compile it and install the kernel">
443 livecd etc # <i>time emerge gentoo-sources</i>
444
445 real 2m51.435s
446 user 0m58.220s
447 sys 0m29.890s
448 livecd etc # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
449 livecd linux # <i>make menuconfig</i>
450 <comment>(Configure your kernel)</comment>
451 livecd linux # <i>time make -j2</i>
452
453 <comment>(Elapsed time depends highly on the options you selected)</comment>
454 real 3m51.962s
455 user 3m27.060s
456 sys 0m24.310s
457
458 livecd linux # <i>make modules_install</i>
459 livecd linux # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 </body>
463 </section>
464 <section>
465 <title>Configure the system</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 Edit your <path>/etc/fstab</path> and replace <c>BOOT</c>, <c>ROOT</c> and
470 <c>SWAP</c> with the actual partition names. Don't forget to check that the
471 file systems match your installation.
472 </p>
473
474 <pre caption="Example fstab">
475 livecd linux # <i>cd /etc</i>
476 livecd etc # <i>nano -w fstab</i>
477 /dev/<i>sda1</i> /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
478 /dev/<i>sda3</i> / ext3 noatime 0 1
479 /dev/<i>sda2</i> none swap sw 0 0
480 </pre>
481
482 <p>
483 Configure your network in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. Add the <c>net.eth0</c>
484 init script to the default run level. If you have multiple NICs, symlink them
485 to the <c>net.eth0</c> init script and add them to the default run level as
486 well. Either edit <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with <c>nano</c> or use the
487 following commands:
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Configure networking">
491 livecd etc # <i>cd conf.d</i>
492 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'config_eth0=( "192.168.1.10/24" )' >> net</i>
493 livecd conf.d # <i>echo 'routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.1.1" )' >> net</i>
494 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
495 <comment>(If you compiled your network card driver as a module,
496 add it to /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6)</comment>
497 livecd conf.d # <i>echo r8169 >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
498 <comment>(If you want to reconnect via ssh after you have rebooted your new box:)</comment>
499 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add sshd default</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <note>
503 Emerge <c>pcmciautils</c> if you need support for PCMCIA cards.
504 </note>
505
506 <p>
507 Set the root password using <c>passwd</c>.
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption="Set the root password">
511 livecd conf.d # <i>passwd</i>
512 New UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
513 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>type_the_password_again</comment>
514 passwd: password updated successfully
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to define the time zone you used
519 previously.
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Edit /etc/conf.d/clock">
523 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
524 TIMEZONE="Europe/Brussels"
525 </pre>
526
527 <p>
528 Check the system configuration in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>,
529 <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> and edit any of
530 those files if required.
531 </p>
532
533 <pre caption="Optional: edit some config files">
534 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
535 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc</i>
536 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
537 </pre>
538
539 </body>
540 </section>
541 <section>
542 <title>Installing System Tools</title>
543 <body>
544
545 <p>
546 Install a system logger like <c>syslog-ng</c> and a cron daemon like
547 <c>vixie-cron</c>, and add them to the default run level.
548 </p>
549
550 <note>
551 Cron daemons depend on an MTA. <c>mail-mta/ssmtp</c> will be pulled in as a
552 dependency. If you want to use a more advanced MTA, you might want to install
553 it now. If you are in a hurry, let ssmtp be installed and remove it later when
554 you install the MTA of your choice.
555 </note>
556
557 <pre caption="Install a syslogger and a cron daemon">
558 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron</i>
559
560 real 1m52.699s
561 user 1m1.630s
562 sys 0m35.220s
563 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
564 livecd conf.d # <i>rc-update add vixie-cron default</i>
565 </pre>
566
567 <p>
568 Install the necessary file system tools (<c>xfsprogs</c>, <c>reiserfsprogs</c>
569 or <c>jfsutils</c>) and networking tools (<c>dhcpcd</c> or <c>ppp</c>) if you
570 need any.
571 </p>
572
573 <pre caption="Install extra tools if required">
574 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge xfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the XFS file system)</comment>
575 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge jfsutils</i> <comment>(If you use the JFS file system)</comment>
576 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge reiserfsprogs</i> <comment>(If you use the Reiser file system)</comment>
577 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i> <comment>(If you need a DHCP client)</comment>
578 livecd conf.d # <i>emerge ppp</i> <comment>(If you need PPPoE ADSL connectivity)</comment>
579 </pre>
580
581 </body>
582 </section>
583 <section>
584 <title>Configuring the Bootloader</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 Emerge <c>grub</c> or <c>lilo</c>. Configure either
589 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> and install
590 the bootloader you have emerged.
591 </p>
592
593 <p>
594 <b>1. Using grub</b>
595 </p>
596
597 <pre caption="Emerge grub and edit its configuration file">
598 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge grub</i>
599
600 real 1m8.634s
601 user 0m39.460s
602 sys 0m15.280s
603 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</i>
604 </pre>
605
606 <pre caption="Example grub.conf">
607 default 0
608 timeout 10
609
610 title=Gentoo
611 root (hd0,0)
612 kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda3
613 </pre>
614
615 <pre caption="Install grub">
616 livecd conf.d # <i>grub</i>
617 Probing devices to guess BIOS drives. This may take a long time.
618
619 grub> <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
620 Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83
621
622 grub> <i>setup (hd0)</i>
623 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
624 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
625 Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes
626 Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 16 sectors are embedded.
627 succeeded
628 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+16 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2 /boot/
629 grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
630 Done.
631
632 grub> <i>quit</i>
633 </pre>
634
635 <p>
636 Now, proceed with the <uri link="#reboot">rebooting section</uri>.
637 </p>
638
639 <p>
640 <b>2. Using lilo</b>
641 </p>
642
643 <pre caption="Emerge lilo and edit its configuration file">
644 livecd conf.d # <i>time emerge lilo</i>
645
646 real 0m47.016s
647 user 0m22.770s
648 sys 0m5.980s
649 livecd conf.d # <i>nano -w /etc/lilo.conf</i>
650 </pre>
651
652 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
653 boot=/dev/sda
654 prompt
655 timeout=50
656 default=gentoo
657
658 image=/boot/kernel
659 label=Gentoo
660 read-only
661 root=/dev/sda3
662 </pre>
663
664 <pre caption="Install lilo">
665 livecd conf.d # <i>lilo</i>
666 Added Gentoo *
667 </pre>
668
669 </body>
670 </section>
671 <section id="reboot">
672 <title>Reboot</title>
673 <body>
674
675 <p>
676 Exit the chrooted environment, unmount all file systems and reboot:
677 </p>
678
679 <pre caption="Reboot">
680 livecd conf.d # <i>exit</i>
681 livecd / # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
682 livecd / # <i>reboot</i>
683 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the CD)</comment>
684 </pre>
685
686 </body>
687 </section>
688 <section id="after-reboot">
689 <title>Finalizing the Installation</title>
690 <body>
691
692 <note>
693 The <b>total</b> elapsed time between the display of the boot prompt on the
694 minimal CD and the display of the login prompt after the reboot was
695 <b>00:42:31</b> on our test box. Yes, less than one hour! Note that this time
696 also includes the stage3, Portage snapshot and several packages download time
697 and the time spent configuring the kernel.
698 </note>
699
700 <p>
701 Log in as <c>root</c>, then add one or more users for daily use with
702 <c>useradd</c>.
703 </p>
704
705 <pre caption="Connect to your new box from another PC">
706 <comment>(Clean up your known_hosts file because your new box
707 has generated a new definitive hostkey)</comment>
708 $ <i>nano -w ~/.ssh/known_hosts</i>
709 <comment>(Look for the IP of your new PC and delete the line,
710 then save the file and exit nano)</comment>
711
712 <comment>(Use the IP address of your new box)</comment>
713 $ <i>ssh root@192.168.1.10</i>
714 The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.
715 RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.
716 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <i>yes</i>
717 Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
718 Password: <comment>type_the_password</comment>
719 </pre>
720
721 <pre caption="Add a new user">
722 mybox ~ # <i>adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m john</i>
723 mybox ~ # <i>passwd john</i>
724 New UNIX password: <comment>Set John's password</comment>
725 Retype new UNIX password: <comment>Type John's password again</comment>
726 passwd: password updated successfully
727 </pre>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 <section>
732 <title>Last configuration touches</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 Start by selecting nearby mirrors either by defining the <c>RSYNC</c> and
737 <c>GENTOO_MIRRORS</c> variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or by using
738 <c>mirrorselect</c>. You can also define the number of concurrent compilation
739 processes at this point.
740 </p>
741
742 <pre caption="Use mirrorselect and set MAKEOPTS">
743 mybox ~ # <i>emerge mirrorselect</i>
744 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
745 mybox ~ # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o >> /etc/make.conf</i>
746 <comment>(Usually, (the number of processors + 1) is a good value)</comment>
747 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'MAKEOPTS="-j2"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
748 </pre>
749
750 <p>
751 Now is a good time to enable or disable some USE flags. Run <c>emerge -vpe
752 world</c> to list all currently installed packages and their enabled and
753 disabled USE flags. Either edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or use the
754 following command to define the USE variable:
755 </p>
756
757 <pre caption="View USE flags in use and enable or disable some">
758 mybox ~ # <i>emerge -vpe world</i>
759 <comment>(Portage displays the packages and their USE flags, as an example, let's
760 disable ipv6 and fortran, and enable unicode)</comment>
761 mybox ~ # <i>echo 'USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode"' >> /etc/make.conf</i>
762 </pre>
763
764 <p>
765 Recent versions of glibc use <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> to define locale
766 settings.
767 </p>
768
769 <pre caption="Define locales">
770 mybox ~ # <i>cd /etc</i>
771 mybox etc # <i>nano -w locale.gen</i>
772 </pre>
773
774 <p>
775 Last but not least, you may want to alter the <c>CFLAGS</c> variable in your
776 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to optimise the code to your specific needs. Please
777 note that using a long list of flags is rarely needed and can even lead to a
778 broken system. It is recommended to specify the processor type in the
779 <c>march</c> option and stick to <c>-O2 -pipe</c>.
780 </p>
781
782 <p>
783 You may also want to switch to <b>~x86</b>. You should only do this if you can
784 deal with the odd broken ebuild or package. If you'd rather keep your system
785 stable, don't add the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable. Adding
786 <c>FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"</c> is also a good idea.
787 </p>
788
789 <pre caption="Last edit of make.conf">
790 mybox etc # <i>nano -w make.conf</i>
791 <comment>(Set -march to your CPU type in CFLAGS)</comment>
792 CFLAGS="-O2 -march=<i>athlon-xp</i> -pipe"
793 <comment>(Add the following line)</comment>
794 FEATURES="parallel-fetch ccache"
795 <comment>(Only add the following if you know what you're doing)</comment>
796 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
797 </pre>
798
799 <p>
800 You might want to recompile your whole system twice to make full use of your
801 latest configuration changes. It would take quite a long time to complete and
802 yield minimal speed benefits. You can let your system optimise itself gradually
803 over time when new versions of packages are released. However, recompiling is
804 a still good idea from the standpoint of maintaining system consistency. Please
805 see the <uri link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">Gentoo GCC Upgrading Guide</uri>
806 for a discussion on the benefits of ensuring a consistently built system and
807 world.
808 </p>
809
810 <p>
811 Recompiling only the packages that have already been updated since the release
812 or that are affected by your new USE flags will take enough time. You might
813 also have to remove packages that block your upgrade. Look for "[blocks
814 <brite>B</brite> ]" in the output of <c>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</c> and
815 use <c>emerge -C</c> to remove them.
816 </p>
817
818 <pre caption="Update your packages">
819 <comment>(Install ccache)</comment>
820 mybox etc # <i>emerge ccache</i>
821
822 <comment>(Please note that the switch to ~x86 causes many packages to be upgraded)</comment>
823 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vpuD --newuse world</i>
824 <comment>(Take a good look at the package list and their USE flags,
825 remove blocking packages if any, and start the lengthy process)</comment>
826 mybox etc # <i>time emerge -vuD --newuse world</i>
827 <comment>(79 packages have been (re)compiled)</comment>
828
829 real 180m13.276s
830 user 121m22.905s
831 sys 36m31.472s
832
833 <comment>(Remerge libtool to avoid further potential problems)</comment>
834 mybox etc # <i>emerge libtool</i>
835
836 <comment>(Update config files, make sure you <b>do not</b> let etc-update
837 update config files you have edited)</comment>
838 mybox etc # <i>etc-update</i>
839
840 <comment>(If perl has been updated, you should run the perl-cleaner script)</comment>
841 mybox etc # <i>time perl-cleaner all</i>
842 real 1m6.495s
843 user 0m42.699s
844 sys 0m10.641s
845
846 <comment>(In case of a major upgrade of python, you should run the python-updater script)</comment>
847 mybox etc # <i>python-updater</i>
848 </pre>
849
850 </body>
851 </section>
852 <section>
853 <title>What to do next</title>
854 <body>
855
856 <p>
857 Depending on what your new Gentoo machine is supposed to do, you will probably
858 want to install server applications or a desktop system. Just as an example,
859 <c>emerge gnome</c> and <c>emerge kde</c> have been timed on the ~x86 system
860 installed as describe above. Both have been installed from the same starting
861 point.
862 </p>
863
864 <p>
865 You should check our <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation index</uri> to find out
866 how to install and configure the applications of your choice.
867 </p>
868
869 <impo>
870 The following is only an example. It is in no way meant as a recommended setup.
871 </impo>
872
873 <pre caption="Emerge GNOME">
874 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp gnome</i>
875 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
876 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
877 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
878 <comment>(The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
879 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
880 -kde -qt3 -qt4 -arts -eds -esd gnome gstreamer gtk firefox"
881
882 mybox etc # <i>time emerge gnome</i>
883 <comment>(326 packages have been emerged)</comment>
884
885 real 520m44.532s
886 user 339m21.144s
887 sys 146m22.337s
888 </pre>
889
890 <pre caption="Emerge KDE">
891 mybox etc # <i>emerge -vp kde-meta</i>
892 <comment>(Look at the list of packages and their USE flags,
893 then edit make.conf if required.</comment>
894 mybox etc # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
895 <comment>The following USE flags have been defined)</comment>
896 USE="nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode svg hal dbus \
897 kde qt3 qt4 -arts -eds -esd -gnome -gstreamer -gtk -firefox"
898
899 mybox etc # <i>time emerge kde-meta</i>
900 <comment>(391 packages have been emerged)</comment>
901
902 real 1171m25.318s
903 user 851m26.393s
904 sys 281m45.629s
905 </pre>
906
907 </body>
908 </section>
909 </chapter>
910 </guide>

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