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#44332 - Inform users how they can leave their terminal unattended safely when installing gentoo. Using screen or nohup

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-tipsntricks.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo/x86 Installation Tips &amp; Tricks</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
8 </author>
9
10 <abstract>
11 The Gentoo installation allows for very flexible approaches to the various
12 installation methods. As it is almost impossible to insert every single tip or
13 trick in the installation instructions this document tries to deal with all
14 submitted tips and tricks for reference purposes.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <license/>
18
19 <version>1.0</version>
20 <date>April 11, 2004</date>
21
22 <chapter>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <section>
25 <title>Preliminary</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 This document contains various tips and tricks for the Gentoo/x86 installation.
30 Most of them are discussed in a dense way - they are meant as an addendum to the
31 installation instructions and not as a replacement.
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </section>
36 <section>
37 <title>Contents</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <b>Advanced Installations</b>
42 </p>
43
44 <ul>
45 <li><uri link="#software-raid">Software RAID</uri></li>
46 </ul>
47
48 <p>
49 <b>Simplifying the Installation</b>
50 </p>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li><uri link="#leave_terminal">Leaving the Terminal</uri></li>
54 </ul>
55
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 </chapter>
59 <chapter>
60 <title>Advanced Installations</title>
61 <section id="software-raid">
62 <title>Software RAID</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <note>
66 If you are not known to software raid, please read the <uri
67 link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-RAID-HOWTO.html">Software-RAID-HOWTO</uri>.
68 </note>
69
70 <p>
71 Once you are booted from the LiveCD, load the appropriate RAID modules. For
72 instance, if you plan on using RAID-1:
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Loading the RAID-1 module">
76 # <i>modprobe raid1</i>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 When you partition your disks, make sure that your partitions use <c>fd</c>
81 (Linux raid autodetect) as Partition Type instead of <c>83</c> (Linux native).
82 You can alter the partition type using the <c>t</c> command in <c>fdisk</c>.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 After partitioning, create the <path>/etc/raidtab</path> file (yes, indeed, on
87 the LiveCD environment) and insert the necessary commands for your RAID setup.
88 For instance, to have your boot, swap and root partition mirrored (RAID-1)
89 covering <path>/dev/sda</path> and <path>/dev/sdb</path>, you can use:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="/etc/raidtab for RAID-1 setup">
93 raiddev /dev/md0
94 raid-level 1
95 nr-raid-disks 2
96 chunk-size 32
97 persistent-superblock 1
98 device /dev/sda1
99 raid-disk 0
100 device /dev/sdb1
101 raid-disk 1
102
103 raiddev /dev/md1
104 raid-level 1
105 nr-raid-disks 2
106 chunk-size 32
107 persistent-superblock 1
108 device /dev/sda2
109 raid-disk 0
110 device /dev/sdb2
111 raid-disk 1
112
113 raiddev /dev/md2
114 raid-level 1
115 nr-raid-disks 2
116 chunk-size 32
117 persistent-superblock 1
118 device /dev/sda3
119 raid-disk 0
120 device /dev/sdb3
121 raid-disk 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 Now create the necessary RAID devices for each RAID device you listed in
126 <path>/etc/raidtab</path>:
127 </p>
128
129 <pre caption="Creating RAID devices">
130 # <i>mkraid /dev/md0</i>
131 # <i>mkraid /dev/md1</i>
132 # <i>mkraid /dev/md2</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 The Linux Software RAID driver will start creating the metadevices. You can see
137 its progress in <path>/proc/mdstat</path>. Wait until the metadevices are
138 completely finished before proceeding.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 From now onwards, use <path>/dev/md0</path> for the boot partition,
143 <path>/dev/md1</path> for the swap partition and <path>/dev/md2</path> for the
144 root partition.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 After mounting <path>/dev/md2</path> on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, don't forget
149 to copy over <path>/etc/raidtab</path> to <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc</path>.
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 When you're configuring your kernel, make sure you have the appropriate RAID
154 support <e>in</e> your kernel and not as module.
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 When installing extra tools, emerge <c>raidtools</c> as well. Note that this
159 isn't available on all LiveCDs so you might not be able to install Gentoo on a
160 Software RAID when using a networkless installation!
161 </p>
162
163 <p>
164 When configuring your bootloader, make sure it gets installed in the MBR of
165 <e>both</e> disks if you use mirroring.
166 </p>
167
168 </body>
169 </section>
170 </chapter>
171
172 <chapter>
173 <title>Simplifying the Installation</title>
174 <section id="leave_terminal">
175 <title>Leaving your Terminal</title>
176 <body>
177
178 <p>
179 Many people want to leave their system when it's compiling. In certain cases
180 this is rather difficult as the installation is done in a public environment
181 where you cannot trust everyone. If this is the case, you want to be able to
182 perform the compilation in the background and log out from all terminals.
183 </p>
184
185 <p>
186 There are several possible solutions for this. The first one is to use
187 <c>screen</c>. After booting the LiveCD, set your root password and start a
188 screen session:
189 </p>
190
191 <note>
192 Not all LiveCDs provide screen. If this is the case, you will have to use one of
193 the other methods described in this section.
194 </note>
195
196 <pre caption="Starting a screen session">
197 # <i>screen -S gentoo</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Once inside the screen session you can perform the entire installation. When you
202 want to leave your terminal, press <c>Ctrl-a, d</c> (that is, control and a at
203 the same time, then followed by a d) to <e>detach</e> your screen session. You
204 can now safely log out of your system.
205 </p>
206
207 <p>
208 To regain access to your terminal, log in as root again and <e>attach</e> to
209 the running screen session:
210 </p>
211
212 <pre caption="Attaching to a screen session">
213 # <i>screen -x gentoo</i>
214 </pre>
215
216 <p>
217 If you can't use screen, there is still a way to leave your terminal. Follow the
218 installation instructions, but when you come to the point where a long-term
219 compilation would be started (for instance the <c>./scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
220 step), use <c>nohup</c> which allows for a process to continue even when you log
221 out. Don't forget the trailing "&amp;", otherwise the process won't be placed in
222 the background! Remember where you are (the <c>pwd</c> command will show you
223 that) as you will need to know this later on.
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Using nohup">
227 # <i>pwd</i>
228 /usr/portage
229 # <i>nohup ./scripts/bootstrap.sh &amp;</i>
230 </pre>
231
232 <p>
233 Now exit the chrooted environment (<c>exit</c>) and the LiveCD session. Your
234 compilation will continue in the background.
235 </p>
236
237 <p>
238 When you want to check the compilation, log in as root (on the LiveCD) and
239 chroot back into your environment and go to the directory where you left off:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Chrooting back">
243 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
244 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
245 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
246 </pre>
247
248 <p>
249 Now use the <c>less</c> command on the <path>nohup.out</path> file that is
250 situated inside that directory. The compilation will append its output to that
251 file, so if you want to follow the compilation progress, run <c>less
252 nohup.out</c> and press <c>F</c> to follow the changes. When the compilation is
253 finished, you can continue with the next step of the installation instructions.
254 </p>
255
256 <p>
257 If you ever get tired of following the changes, press <c>Ctrl-C</c> followed by
258 a <c>q</c>. This won't stop the compilation process, only the <c>less</c>
259 process.
260 </p>
261
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 </chapter>
265
266 </guide>

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