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#45808 - Add ATA RAID instructions to the tips/tricks

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-tipsntricks.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo/x86 Installation Tips &amp; Tricks</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
8 </author>
9
10 <abstract>
11 The Gentoo installation allows for very flexible approaches to the various
12 installation methods. As it is almost impossible to insert every single tip or
13 trick in the installation instructions this document tries to deal with all
14 submitted tips and tricks for reference purposes.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <license/>
18
19 <version>1.1</version>
20 <date>April 11, 2004</date>
21
22 <chapter>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <section>
25 <title>Preliminary</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 This document contains various tips and tricks for the Gentoo/x86 installation.
30 Most of them are discussed in a dense way - they are meant as an addendum to the
31 installation instructions and not as a replacement.
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </section>
36 <section>
37 <title>Contents</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <b>Advanced Installations</b>
42 </p>
43
44 <ul>
45 <li><uri link="#software-raid">Software RAID</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#ata-raid-2.4">ATA RAID using 2.4 kernels</uri></li>
47 </ul>
48
49 <p>
50 <b>Simplifying the Installation</b>
51 </p>
52
53 <ul>
54 <li><uri link="#leave_terminal">Leaving the Terminal</uri></li>
55 </ul>
56
57 </body>
58 </section>
59 </chapter>
60 <chapter>
61 <title>Advanced Installations</title>
62 <section id="software-raid">
63 <title>Software RAID</title>
64 <body>
65
66 <note>
67 If you are not known to software raid, please read the <uri
68 link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-RAID-HOWTO.html">Software-RAID-HOWTO</uri>.
69 </note>
70
71 <p>
72 Once you are booted from the LiveCD, load the appropriate RAID modules. For
73 instance, if you plan on using RAID-1:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Loading the RAID-1 module">
77 # <i>modprobe raid1</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 When you partition your disks, make sure that your partitions use <c>fd</c>
82 (Linux raid autodetect) as Partition Type instead of <c>83</c> (Linux native).
83 You can alter the partition type using the <c>t</c> command in <c>fdisk</c>.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 After partitioning, create the <path>/etc/raidtab</path> file (yes, indeed, on
88 the LiveCD environment) and insert the necessary commands for your RAID setup.
89 For instance, to have your boot, swap and root partition mirrored (RAID-1)
90 covering <path>/dev/sda</path> and <path>/dev/sdb</path>, you can use:
91 </p>
92
93 <pre caption="/etc/raidtab for RAID-1 setup">
94 raiddev /dev/md0
95 raid-level 1
96 nr-raid-disks 2
97 chunk-size 32
98 persistent-superblock 1
99 device /dev/sda1
100 raid-disk 0
101 device /dev/sdb1
102 raid-disk 1
103
104 raiddev /dev/md1
105 raid-level 1
106 nr-raid-disks 2
107 chunk-size 32
108 persistent-superblock 1
109 device /dev/sda2
110 raid-disk 0
111 device /dev/sdb2
112 raid-disk 1
113
114 raiddev /dev/md2
115 raid-level 1
116 nr-raid-disks 2
117 chunk-size 32
118 persistent-superblock 1
119 device /dev/sda3
120 raid-disk 0
121 device /dev/sdb3
122 raid-disk 1
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 Now create the necessary RAID devices for each RAID device you listed in
127 <path>/etc/raidtab</path>:
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Creating RAID devices">
131 # <i>mkraid /dev/md0</i>
132 # <i>mkraid /dev/md1</i>
133 # <i>mkraid /dev/md2</i>
134 </pre>
135
136 <p>
137 The Linux Software RAID driver will start creating the metadevices. You can see
138 its progress in <path>/proc/mdstat</path>. Wait until the metadevices are
139 completely finished before proceeding.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 From now onwards, use <path>/dev/md0</path> for the boot partition,
144 <path>/dev/md1</path> for the swap partition and <path>/dev/md2</path> for the
145 root partition.
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 After mounting <path>/dev/md2</path> on <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, don't forget
150 to copy over <path>/etc/raidtab</path> to <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc</path>.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 When you're configuring your kernel, make sure you have the appropriate RAID
155 support <e>in</e> your kernel and not as module.
156 </p>
157
158 <p>
159 When installing extra tools, emerge <c>raidtools</c> as well. Note that this
160 isn't available on all LiveCDs so you might not be able to install Gentoo on a
161 Software RAID when using a networkless installation!
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 When configuring your bootloader, make sure it gets installed in the MBR of
166 <e>both</e> disks if you use mirroring.
167 </p>
168
169 </body>
170 </section>
171 <section id="ata-raid-2.4">
172 <title>ATA RAID using 2.4 kernels</title>
173 <body>
174
175 <p>
176 Make sure you boot your LiveCD using the <c>doataraid</c> option. Once booted,
177 check the contents of <path>/dev/ataraid</path>. It should contain various
178 <path>disc*</path> directories for each harddisk available in the ATA RAID. An
179 entire disk is displayed as <path>disc</path> while partitions are
180 <path>part*</path>.
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 Write down the various <path>/dev/ataraid/disc*/*</path> device files that you
185 use to install Gentoo on. You will need to substitute the <path>/dev/hda</path>
186 examples in the installation with this path.
187 </p>
188
189 <p>
190 Before chrooting, bind-mount the <path>/dev</path> structure in the new
191 environment:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Bind-mounting /dev">
195 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 When configuring your kernel, make sure you enable support for your ATA RAID
200 chipset and options. For instance, a popular ATA RAID system is a <e>Promise
201 FastTrack built-in RAID</e> in which case you definitely need <c>Promise
202 FastTrack Options</c> built in into your kernel.
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 When configuring GRUB, you first have to create a GRUB bootdisk. This is not as
207 hard as you think. First install GRUB as you would, but when you come to the
208 part where GRUB is getting installed in the MBR, follow the following
209 instructions:
210 </p>
211
212 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB bootdisk">
213 # <i>cd /boot/grub</i>
214 # <i>dd if=stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1</i>
215 # <i>dd if=stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1</i>
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 You still need to write your <path>grub.conf</path> file. This is no different
220 from the installation instructions, just make sure that your <c>root=</c> points
221 to the ATA RAID device.
222 </p>
223
224 <p>
225 After finishing the installation, boot with your GRUB bootdisk. You will be
226 greeted by a GRUB prompt. Now configure GRUB to boot from the ATA RAID device:
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Installing GRUB on the ATA RAID">
230 grub&gt; root (hd0,x)
231 grub&gt; setup (hd0)
232 grub&gt; quit
233 </pre>
234
235 <p>
236 Now reboot (with the GRUB bootfloppy removed).
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 LILO users can safely use the instructions mentioned in the installation
241 instructions.
242 </p>
243
244 </body>
245 </section>
246 </chapter>
247
248 <chapter>
249 <title>Simplifying the Installation</title>
250 <section id="leave_terminal">
251 <title>Leaving your Terminal</title>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 Many people want to leave their system when it's compiling. In certain cases
256 this is rather difficult as the installation is done in a public environment
257 where you cannot trust everyone. If this is the case, you want to be able to
258 perform the compilation in the background and log out from all terminals.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 There are several possible solutions for this. The first one is to use
263 <c>screen</c>. After booting the LiveCD, set your root password and start a
264 screen session:
265 </p>
266
267 <note>
268 Not all LiveCDs provide screen. If this is the case, you will have to use one of
269 the other methods described in this section.
270 </note>
271
272 <pre caption="Starting a screen session">
273 # <i>screen -S gentoo</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 Once inside the screen session you can perform the entire installation. When you
278 want to leave your terminal, press <c>Ctrl-a, d</c> (that is, control and a at
279 the same time, then followed by a d) to <e>detach</e> your screen session. You
280 can now safely log out of your system.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 To regain access to your terminal, log in as root again and <e>attach</e> to
285 the running screen session:
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Attaching to a screen session">
289 # <i>screen -x gentoo</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 If you can't use screen, there is still a way to leave your terminal. Follow the
294 installation instructions, but when you come to the point where a long-term
295 compilation would be started (for instance the <c>./scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
296 step), use <c>nohup</c> which allows for a process to continue even when you log
297 out. Don't forget the trailing "&amp;", otherwise the process won't be placed in
298 the background! Remember where you are (the <c>pwd</c> command will show you
299 that) as you will need to know this later on.
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Using nohup">
303 # <i>pwd</i>
304 /usr/portage
305 # <i>nohup ./scripts/bootstrap.sh &amp;</i>
306 </pre>
307
308 <p>
309 Now exit the chrooted environment (<c>exit</c>) and the LiveCD session. Your
310 compilation will continue in the background.
311 </p>
312
313 <p>
314 When you want to check the compilation, log in as root (on the LiveCD) and
315 chroot back into your environment and go to the directory where you left off:
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption="Chrooting back">
319 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
320 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
321 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 Now use the <c>less</c> command on the <path>nohup.out</path> file that is
326 situated inside that directory. The compilation will append its output to that
327 file, so if you want to follow the compilation progress, run <c>less
328 nohup.out</c> and press <c>F</c> to follow the changes. When the compilation is
329 finished, you can continue with the next step of the installation instructions.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 If you ever get tired of following the changes, press <c>Ctrl-C</c> followed by
334 a <c>q</c>. This won't stop the compilation process, only the <c>less</c>
335 process.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 </chapter>
341
342 </guide>

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