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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4
5 <guide link = "/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">
6 <title>Gentoolkit</title>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="mbutcher@aleph-null.tv">
8 Matt Butcher</mail>
9 </author>
10
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12 <!-- Licensed under GFDL -->
13
14 <abstract>
15 Gentoolkit is a suite of tools to ease the administration of a Gentoo system.
16 This document covers the basics of
17 some of the tools present in Gentoolkit.
18 </abstract>
19
20 <version>1.1</version>
21 <date>25 September 2002</date>
22
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Introduction</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>What is Gentoolkit?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>Gentoo is a unique distribution, and presents some complexities that
29 simply don't exist for other distributions. As Gentoo developers
30 and contributors discovered some of these complexities, they also
31 wrote tools to help users and administrators work around them.
32 Many of these tools have been contributed to the Gentoo project,
33 and are included in the package <path>app-admin/gentoolkit</path>.
34 </p>
35
36 <p>Gentoolkit contains a whole bunch of useful tools to help manage
37 Portage and the ebuild architecture. Most users -- particularly
38 those who update systems often -- will benefit from having
39 gentoolkit installed.</p>
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>Installation</title>
44 <body>
45 <p>Just as with any Gentoo package, installation is just a simple
46 emerge.
47 </p>
48
49 <pre>
50 <i>emerge gentoolkit </i>
51 </pre>
52 <note>Many of the tools in gentoolkit reveal important information
53 about your system or require root permissions. For that reason,
54 some of the programs may only be executed (or only function
55 properly) if run by a user with root permissions.</note>
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>Finding Documentation</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 At the time of this writing, not all of the programs in gentoolkit
64 are well documented. Some have man pages, but not all. Any documentation
65 that a program might have (other than man pages) is stored in
66 <path>/usr/doc/gentoolkit-[version]/[program-name]/</path>.
67 </p>
68 </body>
69 </section>
70 </chapter>
71 <chapter>
72 <title>Querying Package Data with qpkg</title>
73 <section>
74
75 <title>Introduction</title>
76 <body>
77 <p><c>qpkg</c> is flexible tool for determining information about ebuilds,
78 whether installed or not. It can provide information about what files belong
79 to which ebuilds, whether multiple versions of the same package are installed,
80 and what a particular ebuild does.
81 </p>
82 <p>Calling <c>qpkg</c> with no arguments prints a list of all ebuilds, with asterisks
83 (*) next to the packages that are installed on the system.
84 </p>
85 <note>By default, <c>qpkg</c> prints output in color. To turn this off on the command
86 line, use the <c>--no-color</c> or <c>-nc</c> flag.</note>
87
88 </body>
89 </section>
90 <section>
91 <title>Querying Package Information</title>
92 <body>
93 <p>One of the most common uses for <c>qpkg</c> is determining what a given package
94 is. For instance, while looking through <path>net-misc</path>, I saw a package
95 called <path>neon</path>. Having no idea what it was, I ran qpkg.
96 </p>
97
98 <pre>
99 hebron root # <i>qpkg -i net-misc/neon
100 net-misc/neon-0.15.3-r1
101 HTTP and WebDAV client library [ http://www.webdav.org/neon ]
102 net-misc/neon-0.18.5
103 HTTP and WebDAV client library [ http://www.webdav.org/neon ]
104 net-misc/neon-0.19.2
105 HTTP and WebDAV client library [ http://www.webdav.org/neon ]
106 net-misc/neon-0.19.2-r1
107 HTTP and WebDAV client library [ http://www.webdav.org/neon ]
108 net-misc/neon-0.21.1
109 HTTP and WebDAV client library [ http://www.webdav.org/neon ] </i>
110 </pre>
111 <p>
112 <c>qpkg</c> read through the ebuild files for the five <path>net-misc/neon</path>
113 ebuilds and printed out the information stored in DESCRIPTION and HOMEPAGE.
114 </p>
115 </body>
116
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>Listing Files Belonging to an Ebuild</title>
120 <body>
121 <p>
122 <c>qpkg</c> can also list the files that belong to an installed ebuild. I
123 Know that gentoolkit installed several tools, but I don't know what they
124 all are. To find out, I can do a <c>qpkg -l</c>
125
126 </p>
127 <pre>
128 hebron portage # <i>qpkg -l app-admin/gentoolkit
129 app-admin/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1 *
130 CONTENTS:
131 /usr
132 /usr/share
133 /usr/share/gentoolkit
134 /usr/share/gentoolkit/histogram.awk
135 /usr/share/doc
136 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1
137 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/gentool
138 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/gentool/ChangeLog.gz
139 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/lintool
140 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/lintool/checklist-for-ebuilds.gz
141 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/lintool/ChangeLog.gz
142 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/etc-update
143 /usr/share/doc/gentoolkit-0.1.14-r1/etc-update/ChangeLog.gz
144 /usr/share/man
145 /usr/share/man/man1
146 /usr/share/man/man1/qpkg.1.gz
147 /usr/share/man/man1/lintool.1.gz
148 /usr/share/man/man1/etc-update.1.gz
149 /usr/bin
150 /usr/bin/gentool-bump-revision
151 /usr/bin/gentool-total-coverage
152 /usr/bin/gentool-author-coverage
153 /usr/bin/gentool-package-count
154 /usr/bin/qpkg
155 /usr/bin/pkg-size
156 /usr/bin/lintool
157 /usr/sbin
158 /usr/sbin/pkg-clean
159 /usr/sbin/mkebuild
160 /usr/sbin/emerge-webrsync
161 /usr/sbin/epm
162 /usr/sbin/etc-update
163 /etc
164 /etc/etc-update.conf </i>
165 </pre>
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 <section>
169 <title>Finding the Package from Where a File Came</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 To find the package that a file came from, use the <c>-f</c>
174 or <c>--find-file</c> flag.
175 </p>
176 <pre>
177 hebron portage # <i>qpkg -f net-www/mozilla * </i>
178 </pre>
179
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>Listing Duplicate Packages</title>
184 <body>
185 <p>
186 Sometimes multiple versions of the same package may exist. <c>qpkg --dup</c>
187
188 will print a list of duplicate packages. The existence of a duplicate package
189 though may not indicate that the older version may be removed. They may fill
190 different slots. To look for duplicates in the same slot, use
191 <c>qpkg --dups --slot</c>. I just updated KDE from 3.0 to 3.0.2, so I have some
192 duplicates in the same slot.
193 </p>
194 <pre>
195 hebron portage # <i>qpkg --dups --slot
196 app-admin/gentoolkit
197 kde-base/kdeaddons
198 kde-base/kdeadmin
199 kde-base/kdeartwork
200 kde-base/kdebase
201 kde-base/kdegames
202 kde-base/kdelibs
203 kde-base/kdemultimedia
204 kde-base/kdenetwork
205 kde-base/kdetoys
206 kde-base/kdeutils
207 media-libs/freetype
208 x11-libs/qt </i>
209 </pre>
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 <section>
213 <title>Verifying Package Integrity</title>
214
215 <body>
216 <p>
217 Sometimes it is useful to check a package's integrity to know that files
218 have not been replaced since they were installed. <c>qpkg</c> can
219 verify md5 sums as well as install times to indicate whether or not files
220 for the package might have been corrupted, replaced, or removed.
221 </p>
222 <p>To check both mtimes and md5 sums, use the <c>-c</c> flag.</p>
223 <pre>
224
225 hebron portage # <i>qpkg gnupg -c -v
226 app-crypt/gnupg-1.0.6 *
227 /usr/lib/gnupg/rndunix !md5! !mtime!
228 /usr/lib/gnupg/rndegd !md5! !mtime!
229 /usr/lib/gnupg/tiger !md5! !mtime!
230 /usr/bin/gpg !md5! !mtime!
231 /usr/bin/gpgv !md5! !mtime!
232 /usr/share/gnupg/options.skel !md5! !mtime!
233 /usr/share/gnupg/FAQ !md5! !mtime!
234 /usr/share/gnupg/faq.html !md5! !mtime!
235 /usr/share/locale/da/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
236 /usr/share/locale/de/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
237 /usr/share/locale/eo/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
238 /usr/share/locale/et/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
239 /usr/share/locale/fr/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
240 /usr/share/locale/id/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
241 /usr/share/locale/it/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
242 /usr/share/locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
243 /usr/share/locale/nl/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
244 /usr/share/locale/pl/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
245 /usr/share/locale/pt_BR/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
246 /usr/share/locale/sv/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
247 /usr/share/locale/tr/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo !md5! !mtime!
248 /usr/share/info/gpgv.info.gz !md5! !mtime!
249 /usr/share/man/man1/gpg.1.gz !md5! !mtime!
250 /usr/share/man/man1/gpgv.1.gz !md5! !mtime!
251 24/92
252
253 app-crypt/gnupg-1.0.7 *
254 0/101 </i>
255 </pre>
256 <p>
257 As you can see, I have more than one version of GnuPG installed. <c>qpkg</c>
258 reports that many of the files from the older version have been changed since I
259 installed it. Those packages were most likely modified when I updated
260 from <path>gnupg-1.0.6</path> to <path>gnupg-1.0.7</path>. Note that the last two
261 lines indicate
262 that 0 of 101 files from <path>gnupg-1.0.7</path> have been changed since I
263 installed. That
264 is good. If any of them had been changed, I would be worried.
265 </p>
266
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 <section>
270 <title>But Wait... There's More</title>
271 <body>
272 <p>
273 <c>qpkg</c> can be used for other querying tasks that I will not go over here. There
274 is a very complete
275 manpage for <c>qpkg</c>. Consult that for more information.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </section>
280 </chapter>
281 <chapter>
282 <title>lintool</title>
283 <section>
284 <title>Introduction</title>
285 <body>
286 <p>
287
288 <c>lintool</c> is a program that checks ebuild scripts for conformance to
289 standards and requirements. It is important for ebuild developers to use <c>lintool</c>
290 to ensure that they are doing things correctly and not requiring the core team
291 to do more than they already have to in order to include the ebuild in the Gentoo
292 repository.
293 </p>
294 </body>
295 </section>
296 <section>
297 <title>Use</title>
298
299 <body>
300 <p>
301 Running <c>lintool</c> will produce a nicely formatted list of checks and results that
302 it performs.
303 </p>
304 <pre>
305 hebron portage # <i>lintool app-crypt/gnupg/gnupg-1.0.7.ebuild
306 app-crypt/gnupg/gnupg-1.0.7.ebuild : Not OK
307
308 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
309 Summary for all 1 ebuild(s) checked # errors/warns
310 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
311 Testing for illegal space characters, weird backslash formatting : 0 / 0
312 Testing for malformed headers : 0 / 1
313 Testing for occurence of deprecated try : 0 / 0
314 Testing for superfluous A=${P}.tar.gz : 0 / 0
315 Testing for empty DEPEND : 0 / 0
316 Testing for empty HOMEPAGE : 0 / 0
317 Testing for empty DESCRIPTION : 0 / 0
318 Testing for presence of env vars : 1 / 1
319 Testing for sane USE flag usage : 0 / 0
320
321 Total number of ebuilds with errors : 1 (100%)
322 Total number of ebuilds with warnings : 1 (100%)
323 </i> </pre>
324 <p>
325 The first line summarizes whether the ebuild is okay or not. In the case of
326 <c>gnupg-1.0.7.ebuild</c>, it's not. Reading through the list of checks, we can see
327 that it got a warning for malformed headers and an error for presence of env
328 vars.
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 Looking at the ebuild, I see that it is missing a couple of required
333 env vars (LICENSE and RDEPEND). Adding those fixes the error. But there are
334 still two warnings -- one for malformed headers and one for env vars. To help
335 me find those, I can run <c>lintool</c> again with <c>--show-details</c>
336 </p>
337 <pre>
338 hebron gnupg # <i>lintool --show-details ./gnupg-1.0.7.ebuild
339
340 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
341 # Some data cut for brevity....
342
343 Status for ./gnupg-1.0.7.ebuild
344 * Testing for malformed headers : passed
345 - (W) Has illegal or suspect headers:
346 |Suspect copyright year: # Copyright 1999-2000 Gentoo Technologies, Inc.
347 * Testing for occurence of deprecated try : passed
348 * Testing for superfluous A=${P}.tar.gz : passed
349 * Testing for empty DEPEND : passed
350 * Testing for empty HOMEPAGE : passed
351 * Testing for empty DESCRIPTION : passed
352 * Testing for presence of env vars : passed
353 - (W) Missing SLOT=
354 * Testing for sane USE flag usage : passed
355
356 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
357 Summary for all 1 ebuild(s) checked # errors/warns
358 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
359 Testing for illegal space characters, weird backslash formatting : 0 / 0
360 Testing for malformed headers : 0 / 1
361 Testing for occurence of deprecated try : 0 / 0
362 Testing for superfluous A=${P}.tar.gz : 0 / 0
363 Testing for empty DEPEND : 0 / 0
364 Testing for empty HOMEPAGE : 0 / 0
365 Testing for empty DESCRIPTION : 0 / 0
366 Testing for presence of env vars : 0 / 1
367 Testing for sane USE flag usage : 0 / 0
368
369 Total number of ebuilds with errors : 0 (0%)
370 Total number of ebuilds with warnings : 1 (100%)
371 </i> </pre>
372 <p>Now I can see that the year in the ebuild is probably wrong, and that it is
373 missing the SLOT variable. Fixing those eliminates all warnings.</p>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 </chapter>
378 <chapter>
379
380 <title>epm</title>
381 <section>
382 <title>Introduction</title>
383 <body>
384 <p>
385 <c>epm</c> is a package managing tool that clones Red Hat rpm commands. As it stands
386 now, it does not offer all of the features of rpm, but it offers some of the more
387 powerful rpm query options.
388 </p>
389
390 <p>
391 It also handles removing packages, which is not covered here. Use <c>epm --help</c>
392 to learn more about deleting packages with <c>epm</c>.
393 </p>
394 </body>
395 </section>
396 <section>
397
398 <title>Querying Packages with epm</title>
399 <body>
400 <p>
401 <c>epm</c> functions with essentially the same command line functions as Red Hat's
402 rpm. <c>epm -qa</c> lists all packages installed. <c>epm -ql</c> lists all the
403 files from a specific ebuild.
404 </p>
405
406 <pre>
407 hebron etc # <i>epm -ql ethereal
408 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/gryphon.so
409 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/gryphon.la
410 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/gryphon.a
411 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/mgcp.so
412 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/mgcp.la
413 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/mgcp.a
414 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/cosnaming.so
415 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/cosnaming.la
416 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/cosnaming.a
417 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/coseventcomm.so
418 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/coseventcomm.la
419 /usr/lib/ethereal/plugins/0.8.20/coseventcomm.a
420 /usr/bin/ethereal
421 /usr/bin/editcap
422 /usr/bin/mergecap
423 /usr/bin/tethereal
424 /usr/bin/text2pcap
425 /usr/bin/idl2eth
426 /usr/share/man/man1/idl2eth.1.gz
427 /usr/share/man/man1/tethereal.1.gz
428 /usr/share/man/man1/text2pcap.1.gz
429 /usr/share/man/man1/editcap.1.gz
430 /usr/share/man/man1/ethereal.1.gz
431 /usr/share/man/man1/mergecap.1.gz
432 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/AUTHORS.gz
433 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/COPYING.gz
434 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/NEWS.gz
435 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/ChangeLog.gz
436 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.gz
437 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/INSTALL.configure.gz
438 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/TODO.gz
439 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.aix.gz
440 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.bsd.gz
441 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.hpux.gz
442 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.irix.gz
443 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.linux.gz
444 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.tru64.gz
445 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.win32.gz
446 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.vmware.gz
447 /etc/ethereal/manuf </i>
448 </pre>
449 <p>
450 <c>epm</c> offers a few advanced query options that are not present in <c>qpkg</c>
451 at the
452 time of this writing. For instance, it can query for just configuration files or
453 just documentation
454 files.
455 </p>
456 <pre>
457
458 hebron etc # <i>epm -qc ethereal
459 /etc/ethereal/manuf
460
461 hebron etc # epm -qd ethereal
462 /usr/share/man/man1/idl2eth.1.gz
463 /usr/share/man/man1/tethereal.1.gz
464 /usr/share/man/man1/text2pcap.1.gz
465 /usr/share/man/man1/editcap.1.gz
466 /usr/share/man/man1/ethereal.1.gz
467 /usr/share/man/man1/mergecap.1.gz
468 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/AUTHORS.gz
469 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/COPYING.gz
470 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/NEWS.gz
471 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/ChangeLog.gz
472 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.gz
473 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/INSTALL.configure.gz
474 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/TODO.gz
475 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.aix.gz
476 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.bsd.gz
477 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.hpux.gz
478 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.irix.gz
479 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.linux.gz
480 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.tru64.gz
481 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.win32.gz
482 /usr/share/doc/ethereal-0.8.20/README.vmware.gz
483 </i> </pre>
484 <note>
485 <c>emp --help</c> lists the options that epm <e>will eventually</e> support. Note,
486 however, that
487 options prefixed with asterisks (*) are not yet implemented.
488 </note>
489 </body>
490 </section>
491 </chapter>
492
493 <chapter>
494 <title>Others</title>
495 <section>
496 <title>etc-update</title>
497 <body>
498 <!--
499 - Feel free to add more to this. It probably deserves its own chapter, but I don't
500 - use it, so I can't really write much about it.
501 -->
502 <p>
503 <c>etc-update</c> provides a convenient alternative to updating configuration
504 files by hand. After running an emerge that changes configuration files, you
505 can run etc-update to step you through the process of updating all impacted
506 configuration files.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 It is driven by a menu-based interface and includes the ability to view and merge
511 in config files before deciding what to do.
512 </p>
513 </body>
514 </section>
515 <section>
516 <title>gentool</title>
517 <body>
518 <p>gentool is a collective name for several small scripts that analyze ebuild
519 statistics.
520 For instance, gentool-total-coverage prints a list of email addresses and the
521 number of ebuilds each has in the portage tree.
522 </p>
523
524 </body>
525 </section>
526 <section>
527 <title>pkg-size</title>
528 <body>
529 <p><c>pkg-size</c> prints the size of the installed files in a given package.
530 </p>
531 <pre>
532
533 hebron portage # <i>pkg-size nmap
534 net-analyzer/nmap-2.54_beta24-r1 897024 (876KB) </i>
535 </pre>
536 </body>
537 </section>
538 <section>
539 <title>mkebuild</title>
540 <body>
541 <p><c>mkebuild</c> simplifies the process of creating a new ebuild by automating as
542 much
543 of the process as possible. Running <c>mkebuild [filename]</c> will create an
544 ebuild for that file. the file should be an archive of some kind. As it works, it
545 will provide
546 feedback about changes you may need to make.
547 </p>
548
549 </body>
550 </section>
551 <section>
552 <title>emerge-webrsync</title>
553 <body>
554 <!-- Can't find any documentation on this anywhere... not even a comment in the
555 code. -->
556 <p>Downloads the daily snapshot over HTTP with wget, and (optionally) syncs with
557 portage.
558 </p>
559 </body>
560
561 </section>
562 </chapter>
563 </guide>

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