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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gnome-config.xml,v 1.28 2009/12/22 06:40:45 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The GNOME Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="lars@strojny.net">Lars Strojny</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 A frequently used environment is GNOME. This HOWTO tries to describe
20 all aspects of GNOME, including installation, configuration, usage, ...
21 </abstract>
22
23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>1.22</version>
28 <date>2010-01-03</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>What is GNOME?</title>
32 <section>
33 <title>The Project</title>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 The <uri link="http://www.gnome.org">GNOME</uri> project is a free software
38 project dedicated to the development of GNOME, a Unix/Linux desktop suite and
39 development platform. The <uri link="http://foundation.gnome.org">GNOME
40 Foundation</uri> coordinates the development and other aspects of the GNOME
41 Project.
42 </p>
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>The Software</title>
48 <body>
49
50 <p>
51 GNOME is a desktop environment and a development platform. This piece of free
52 software is the desktop of choice for several industry leaders. It is
53 interesting both for business users, home users as well as developers.
54 </p>
55
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>The Community</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 Like with any big free software project, GNOME has an extensive user- and
64 development base. <uri link="http://www.gnomedesktop.org">Footnotes</uri>
65 contains GNOME Desktop news for users; <uri
66 link="http://planet.gnome.org">GnomePlanet</uri> is for hackers/contributors and
67 <uri link="http://developer.gnome.org">Developer.Gnome.Org</uri> is for the
68 GNOME developers.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </section>
73 </chapter>
74 <chapter>
75 <title>Installing GNOME</title>
76 <section>
77 <title>What do you need?</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Before you start installing GNOME, you might want to edit your USE variables.
82 Make sure that <c>X</c>, <c>gtk</c>, and <c>gnome</c> are in your USE variable
83 listed in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you want support for <c>hald</c>, the
84 hardware abstraction layer daemon add <c>hal</c> to your USE flags. The same
85 goes for <c>dbus</c>, a system message bus Gnome uses extensively. If you don't
86 want KDE support (the other big desktop environment), remove <c>qt3</c>,
87 <c>qt4</c>, <c>arts</c>, and <c>kde</c>.
88 </p>
89
90 <pre caption="Example USE in /etc/make.conf">
91 USE="-qt3 -qt4 -arts -kde X dbus gtk gnome hal"
92 </pre>
93
94 <p>
95 You can add the <c>branding</c> USE flag to get a lovely Gentoo-branded
96 splashscreen instead of the default Gnome splashscreen:
97 </p>
98
99 <pre caption="Enabling Gentoo branding">
100 # <i>echo "gnome-base/gnome-session branding" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
101 </pre>
102
103 <p>
104 Once done, start installing GNOME by emerging <c>gnome</c>:
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Installing GNOME">
108 # <i>emerge gnome</i>
109 </pre>
110
111 <p>
112 You can also opt for a minimal Gnome installation using <c>gnome-light</c>:
113 </p>
114
115 <pre caption="Installing a minimal GNOME environment">
116 # <i>emerge gnome-light</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 This will take a while, so you might want to start reading all those books your
121 mother bought you but you never opened. Done? Great, now update your
122 environment variables:
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Updating environment variables">
126 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>
130 Next we'll clean up the remaining services.
131 </p>
132
133 <pre caption="Adding hald and dbus to the default runlevel">
134 # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
135 # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
136
137 # <i>/etc/init.d/dbus start</i>
138 # <i>rc-update add dbus default</i>
139 </pre>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section>
144 <title>First Impressions</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 Let us first take a look at what we just built. Exit your root shell and log on
149 as a regular user. We will configure our session to run GNOME when we issue the
150 <c>startx</c> command (see also
151 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml#using_startx">Using startx</uri> in the
152 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">X Server Configuration Howto</uri>):
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Having GNOME as default desktop environment">
156 $ <i>echo "exec gnome-session" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</i>
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 Starting with <c>gnome-base/gnome-session-2.26.2</c>, you will need to prepend
161 the XDG_MENU_PREFIX variable to get the Gnome menus if you're using the
162 <path>~/.xinitrc</path> method to start your desktop. (If you're not using
163 <path>~/.xinitrc</path>, it will be handled automatically for you; no additional
164 configuration is needed.)
165 </p>
166
167 <pre caption="Prepending XDG_MENU_PREFIX to ~/.xinitrc">
168 $ <i>sed -i '1i\export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-' ~/.xinitrc</i>
169 </pre>
170
171 <p>
172 Now start your graphical environment by running <c>startx</c>:
173 </p>
174
175 <pre caption="Starting GNOME">
176 $ <i>startx</i>
177 </pre>
178
179 <p>
180 If all goes well, you should be greeted by GNOME. Congratulations. Now let us
181 take a look at how you can configure GNOME to suit your needs.
182 </p>
183
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 </chapter>
187 <chapter>
188 <title>Configuring GNOME</title>
189 <section>
190 <title>GNOME's Graphical Login Manager</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 If you want the GNOME Display Manager (GDM) to run automatically when you boot
195 (so you can log on graphically), you must add the <c>xdm</c> init script to the
196 default runlevel:
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Adding xdm to the default runlevel">
200 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 Now edit <path>/etc/conf.d/xdm</path> and alter the DISPLAYMANAGER variable.
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm">
208 DISPLAYMANAGER="gdm"
209 </pre>
210
211 <p>
212 If you reboot now, the GNOME Display Manager will prompt you for your username
213 and password and will default to using GNOME as Desktop Environment (even though
214 you will have the option of selecting a different one of course, choosing from
215 those available in <path>/usr/share/xsessions/</path>). Thus, if you use GDM,
216 you don't need to edit <path>~/.xinitrc</path>.
217 </p>
218
219 <p>
220 To use the functionality of <c>hald</c> you need to add your user to the
221 <c>plugdev</c> group. If you want support for devices not handled by the
222 <c>nautilus</c> file manager, or if you're not using <c>nautilus</c> at all, you
223 might want to make sure that <c>gnome-volume-manager</c> is built with the
224 <c>automount</c> USE flag, and that it's started every time you login.
225 </p>
226
227 </body>
228 </section>
229 </chapter>
230 </guide>

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