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Fix bug #427860 - Use /etc/portage for make.conf and make.profile. Old location (/etc) is still supported, this is a heads up (new default)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gnome-config.xml,v 1.35 2011/10/23 09:35:37 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The GNOME Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="lars@strojny.net">Lars Strojny</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 A frequently used environment is GNOME. This HOWTO tries to describe
20 all aspects of GNOME, including installation, configuration, usage, ...
21 </abstract>
22
23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>5</version>
28 <date>2012-07-24</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>What is GNOME?</title>
32 <section>
33 <title>The Project</title>
34 <body>
35
36 <p>
37 The <uri link="http://www.gnome.org">GNOME</uri> project is a free software
38 project dedicated to the development of GNOME, a Unix/Linux desktop suite and
39 development platform. The <uri link="http://foundation.gnome.org">GNOME
40 Foundation</uri> coordinates the development and other aspects of the GNOME
41 Project.
42 </p>
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>The Software</title>
48 <body>
49
50 <p>
51 GNOME is a desktop environment and a development platform. This piece of free
52 software is the desktop of choice for several industry leaders. It is
53 interesting both for business users, home users as well as developers.
54 </p>
55
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 <section>
59 <title>The Community</title>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 Like with any big free software project, GNOME has an extensive user- and
64 development base. <uri link="http://www.gnomedesktop.org">Footnotes</uri>
65 contains GNOME Desktop news for users; <uri
66 link="http://planet.gnome.org">GnomePlanet</uri> is for hackers/contributors and
67 <uri link="http://developer.gnome.org">Developer.Gnome.Org</uri> is for the
68 GNOME developers.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </section>
73 </chapter>
74 <chapter>
75 <title>Installing GNOME</title>
76 <section>
77 <title>What do you need?</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <impo>
81 First read and follow the instructions in the <uri
82 link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">X Server Configuration Howto</uri> to setup your
83 X environment.
84 </impo>
85
86 <p>
87 Before you start installing GNOME, you might want to edit your USE variables.
88 Make sure that <c>X</c>, <c>gtk</c>, and <c>gnome</c> are in your USE variable
89 listed in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>. If you want support for <c>dbus</c>, a
90 system message bus Gnome uses extensively, add it to your USE flags. If you
91 don't want KDE support (the other big desktop environment), remove <c>qt4</c>
92 and <c>kde</c>.
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="Example USE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
96 USE="-qt4 -kde X dbus gtk gnome"
97 </pre>
98
99 <p>
100 You can add the <c>branding</c> USE flag to get a lovely Gentoo-branded
101 splashscreen instead of the default Gnome splashscreen:
102 </p>
103
104 <pre caption="Enabling Gentoo branding">
105 # <i>echo "gnome-base/gnome-session branding" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
106 </pre>
107
108 <note>
109 If you use the <c>desktop</c> profile, these USE flags will be set for you. You
110 can check your profile by running <c>eselect profile list</c> and <c>eselect
111 profile set &lt;profile-name&gt;</c> as root.
112 </note>
113
114 <p>
115 Once done, start installing GNOME by emerging <c>gnome</c>:
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Installing GNOME">
119 # <i>emerge gnome</i>
120 </pre>
121
122 <p>
123 You can also opt for a minimal Gnome installation using <c>gnome-light</c>.
124 If you do so, you will have a lightweight Gnome installation without
125 the additional tools that a full Gnome installation provides so you might need
126 to install additional packages afterwards.
127 </p>
128
129 <pre caption="Installing a minimal GNOME environment">
130 # <i>emerge gnome-light</i>
131 </pre>
132
133 <p>
134 This will take a while, so you might want to start reading all those books your
135 mother bought you but you never opened. Done? Great, now update your
136 environment variables:
137 </p>
138
139 <pre caption="Updating environment variables">
140 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 Next we'll clean up the remaining services and user groups.
145 </p>
146
147 <pre caption="Setting up the DBUS service">
148 # <i>/etc/init.d/dbus start</i>
149 # <i>rc-update add dbus default</i>
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 Check if the <e>plugdev</e> group exists. If it does, it is adviseable to make
154 yourself member of that group, but this is optional (the group is not that
155 common anymore).
156 </p>
157
158 <pre caption="Checking and adding users to plugdev">
159 ~# <i>getent group plugdev</i>
160 plugdev:x:104:
161
162 <comment># Substitute yourUserName with your user name ;-)</comment>
163 ~# <i>gpasswd -a yourUserName plugdev</i>
164 </pre>
165
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 <section>
169 <title>First Impressions</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 Let us first take a look at what we just built. Exit your root shell and log on
174 as a regular user. We will configure our session to run GNOME when we issue the
175 <c>startx</c> command (see also
176 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml#using_startx">Using startx</uri> in the
177 <uri link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">X Server Configuration Howto</uri>):
178 </p>
179
180 <pre caption="Setting GNOME as the default desktop environment">
181 $ <i>echo "exec gnome-session" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</i>
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 Starting with <c>gnome-base/gnome-session-2.26.2</c>, you will need to prepend
186 the XDG_MENU_PREFIX variable to get the Gnome menus if you're using the
187 <path>~/.xinitrc</path> method to start your desktop. (If you're not using
188 <path>~/.xinitrc</path>, it will be handled automatically for you; no additional
189 configuration is needed.)
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Prepending XDG_MENU_PREFIX to ~/.xinitrc">
193 $ <i>sed -i '1i\export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-' ~/.xinitrc</i>
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 Now start your graphical environment by running <c>startx</c>:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Starting GNOME">
201 $ <i>startx</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 If all goes well, you should be greeted by GNOME. Congratulations. Now let us
206 take a look at how you can configure GNOME to suit your needs.
207 </p>
208
209 </body>
210 </section>
211 </chapter>
212 <chapter>
213 <title>Configuring GNOME</title>
214 <section>
215 <title>GNOME's Graphical Login Manager</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 If you want the GNOME Display Manager (GDM) to run automatically when you boot
220 (so you can log on graphically), you must add the <c>xdm</c> init script to the
221 default runlevel:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Adding xdm to the default runlevel">
225 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
226 </pre>
227
228 <p>
229 Now edit <path>/etc/conf.d/xdm</path> and alter the DISPLAYMANAGER variable.
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm">
233 DISPLAYMANAGER="gdm"
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 If you installed Gnome using the <c>gnome-light</c> package, you will need to
238 install <c>gdm</c> too (as it is not defined as part of the <c>gnome-light</c>
239 package).
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Installing the gdm application">
243 # <i>emerge gdm</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 If you reboot now, the GNOME Display Manager will prompt you for your username
248 and password and will default to using GNOME as Desktop Environment (even though
249 you will have the option of selecting a different one of course, choosing from
250 those available in <path>/usr/share/xsessions/</path>). Thus, if you use GDM,
251 you don't need to edit <path>~/.xinitrc</path>.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 </chapter>
257 </guide>

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